Correlation between lipoprotein(a) and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Cherokee Indians: the Cherokee Diabetes Study.Ann Epidemiol. 2005 May; 15(5):390-7.AE
To study the age and gender effects on the distribution of lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and its relationship with other cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes risk factors in the participants of the Cherokee Diabetes Study (CDS) (1995-2000).
The CDS is a population based cross-sectional study of diabetes and its risk factors in Cherokee Indians aged 5 to 40 years of Oklahoma. Lp(a) levels were measured in 2205 participants.
The median Lp(a) (mg/dL) levels in the females were not significantly different among four age groups (5-9, 10-19, 20-29, and 30-40 years). However, the 20- to 29-year-old males had significantly lower Lp(a) levels than the males 10 to 19 and 30 to 40 years old. Females had significantly higher Lp(a) levels than males in the 20- to 29-year-old age group only. In the 5- to 19-year-old children/adolescents, Lp(a) levels were significantly negatively correlated with the degree of Indian heritage (DIH) and positively correlated with total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and apolipoprotein B (apoB) in girls, but not in boys. In the young adults aged 20 to 29 years, Lp(a) levels were significantly correlated with DIH, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), percentage of body fat (PBF), systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglycerides (TG), 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG), and insulin in males, and DIH, PBF, TC, LDL, TG, and insulin in females. In adults aged 30 to 40 years, Lp(a) levels were significantly correlated with DIH, TG, and LDL in females, and DIH and insulin in males.
In the girls, Lp(a) levels appear to be associated with several CVD and diabetes risk factors at an early age (5-19 years), while in the boys, the association occurs at older ages (> 19 years). There are significant age and gender differences regarding the distribution of Lp(a) and its correlates in the 5 to 9, 10 to 19, and 20 to 29-year-old age groups, but the differences tend to be weaker in the 30- to 40-year-old age group. For the same age and gender groups, Lp(a) concentrations in Cherokee Indians were much lower than those reported in blacks and slightly lower than those in whites. In Cherokee Indians, the Lp(a) levels were consistently and positively correlated with LDL, and negatively correlated with DIH, TG, and insulin.