[Hepatic haemorrhage in pregnancy: a case report].G Chir. 2005 Jan-Feb; 26(1-2):47-51.GC
Spontaneous hepatic haemorrhage in pregnancy (SHHP) is a rare event (1 woman out of 15,000). It is generally considered as an advanced state of the microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (HELLP, Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzyme levels, Low Platelet count). Furthermore, the HELLP is considered as a different form of preeclampsia. The patient, a 33-year-old-woman at 30 weeks' gestation, was admitted to hospital for preeclampsia, underwent an emergency Stark caesarean section with the extraction of an alive foetus and evidence of massive intraperitonal haemorrhage from a large hepatic haematoma. A haemostasis with gauzes of Surgicel was performed, with consequent arrest of the haemorrhage. After approximately 6 hours, a recurrence of the intraperitonal haemorrhage led to a new surgical intervention with hepatic packing with gauzes. After 4 days the patient died. The etiopathogenesis of disease is uncertain, both foetal and maternal mortality are high, and the slight number of reported cases (27) of SPPH from HELLP in international literature offer elements for debate. The following points have been put forward: 1. the monitoring of the counts of the platelets represent the only valid predictive test of HELLP. These concerned women in the third trimester of pregnancy, especially those with a history of preeclampsia; 2. the treatment must be immediate, intensive and multidisciplinary, the plasmapheresis has remarkably improved the prognosis; 3. surgical treatment performed in order to control the SPPH makes use of packing, embolization and/or fastening of the common hepatic artery and, in extreme cases, total hepatectomy with transplantation. The Authors believe it is useful to suggest a national epidemiological research in order to estimate the real incidence of the syndrome in Italy and to establish the guidelines for the medico-surgical treatment.