Biosensors for real-time in vivo measurements.Biosens Bioelectron. 2005 Jun 15; 20(12):2388-403.BB
The current status of sensors capable of continuous measurement of analytes in biological media is reviewed. This review containing 173 references deals with devices whose use in single cells, tissue slices, animal models and humans has been demonstrated. In addition to sensors specific for glucose, lactate, glutamate, pyruvate, choline and acetylcholine, insights obtained from monitoring nitric oxide, Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and dopamine are presented. Performance criteria for sensor performance are described as is the subject of biosensor calibration. Biocompatibility issues are dealt with in some detail as is the status of continuous blood glucose monitoring in humans.