[Continuous ethanol fermentation using self-flocculating yeast strain and bioreactor system composed of multi-stage tanks in series].Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2005 Jan; 21(1):113-7.SW
A continuous ethanol fermentation system composed of four-stage tank fermentors in series and with a total working volume of 4000 mL was established. The first fermentor was designated as the seed fermentor and the others for ethanol fermentation. A self-flocculating yeast strain developed by protoplast fusion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe was applied. Two-stage corn powder enzymatic hydrolyzate containing reducing sugar 100 g/L, together with 2.0 g/L (NH4)2HPO4 and KH2PO4, was used as yeast seed culture medium and fed into the seed fermentor at the dilution rate of 0.017h (-1). Meanwhile, the hydrolyzate containing reducing sugar 220 g/L, added with 1.5 g/L (NH4)2HPO4 and 2.5 g/L KH2PO4, was used as ethanol fermentation substrate and fed into the second fermentor at the dilution rates of 0.017, 0.025, 0.033, 0.040 and 0.050 h(-1) (based on the total working volume of the three fermentors), respectively. The chemostat states on which all of the monitoring parameters, including residual sugar, ethanol and yeast cell biomass concentrations, were maintained relatively constant were observed for seed cultivation and ethanol fermentations when the fermentation system was operated at the dilution rates of 0.017, 0.025, 0.033 and 0.050 h(-1). Yeast cells were observed being partly immobilized because significant yeast cell biomass concentration differences between the broth out of and inside the fermentors were detected. Moreover, the oscillations of residual sugar, ethanol and yeast cell biomass concentrations were observed when the fermentation system was operated at the dilution rate of 0.040 h(-1). The broth containing more than 12% (V/V) ethanol and less than 0.11% (W/V) residual reducing sugar and 0.35% (W/V) residual total sugar was produced when the dilution rate was controlled at no more than 0.033 h(-1). The ethanol productivity was calculated to be 3.32(g x L(-1) x h(-1)) for the dilution rate of 0.033 h(-1), which increased nearly 100% compared with that for conventional ethanol fermentation technologies using freely suspended yeast cells.