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Characteristics of internalizing and externalizing disorders in medication-naive, clinically referred children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type and dysthymic disorder.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2005 May; 39(5):359-65.AN

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Internalizing and externalizing disorders are frequently comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-CT) and dysthymic disorder (DD) in referred primary school-age children, yet there has been relatively little systematic research of the nature of these comorbid disorders. We describe the characteristics of parent- and child-reported internalizing and externalizing disorders in primary school-age children with ADHD-CT and DD.

METHOD

A cross-sectional study of 45 clinically referred medication naive children with ADHD-CT and DD, examining parent and child reports of internalizing and externalizing disorders, defined categorically and dimensionally.

RESULTS

Generalized anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder were increased in the DD groups, whether ADHD-CT was present or not. Major depressive disorder was increased in the ADHD-CT and DD group compared to the ADHD-CT alone and the DD alone groups. Conduct disorder was increased in the ADHD-CT alone group compared to the DD with and without ADHD-CT groups. Verbal and fullscale IQ were increased in the DD groups, whether ADHD-CT was present or not, compared to the ADHD-CT alone group.

CONCLUSIONS

There is emerging evidence that DD and anxiety may represent a different phenotypic expression of a common underlying aetiological process, while the co-occurrence of ADHD-CT and anxiety disorders remains unclear. Only the ADHD-CT and DD group is significantly associated with major depressive disorder, which suggests an additive effect. In contrast, conduct disorder and decreased verbal and fullscale IQ are only associated with the ADHD-CT group, which may suggest a protective effect of DD when comorbid with ADHD-CT. From a research perspective, it is important to confirm these found associations in larger samples derived from epidemiological populations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University of Melbourne, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne Victoria 3052, Australia.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15860023

Citation

Sanders, Michelle, et al. "Characteristics of Internalizing and Externalizing Disorders in Medication-naive, Clinically Referred Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type and Dysthymic Disorder." The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 39, no. 5, 2005, pp. 359-65.
Sanders M, Arduca Y, Karamitsios M, et al. Characteristics of internalizing and externalizing disorders in medication-naive, clinically referred children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type and dysthymic disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2005;39(5):359-65.
Sanders, M., Arduca, Y., Karamitsios, M., Boots, M., & Vance, A. (2005). Characteristics of internalizing and externalizing disorders in medication-naive, clinically referred children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type and dysthymic disorder. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39(5), 359-65.
Sanders M, et al. Characteristics of Internalizing and Externalizing Disorders in Medication-naive, Clinically Referred Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type and Dysthymic Disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2005;39(5):359-65. PubMed PMID: 15860023.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Characteristics of internalizing and externalizing disorders in medication-naive, clinically referred children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type and dysthymic disorder. AU - Sanders,Michelle, AU - Arduca,Yolanda, AU - Karamitsios,Mary, AU - Boots,Marilyn, AU - Vance,Alasdair, PY - 2005/4/30/pubmed PY - 2005/10/7/medline PY - 2005/4/30/entrez SP - 359 EP - 65 JF - The Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry JO - Aust N Z J Psychiatry VL - 39 IS - 5 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Internalizing and externalizing disorders are frequently comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-CT) and dysthymic disorder (DD) in referred primary school-age children, yet there has been relatively little systematic research of the nature of these comorbid disorders. We describe the characteristics of parent- and child-reported internalizing and externalizing disorders in primary school-age children with ADHD-CT and DD. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 45 clinically referred medication naive children with ADHD-CT and DD, examining parent and child reports of internalizing and externalizing disorders, defined categorically and dimensionally. RESULTS: Generalized anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder were increased in the DD groups, whether ADHD-CT was present or not. Major depressive disorder was increased in the ADHD-CT and DD group compared to the ADHD-CT alone and the DD alone groups. Conduct disorder was increased in the ADHD-CT alone group compared to the DD with and without ADHD-CT groups. Verbal and fullscale IQ were increased in the DD groups, whether ADHD-CT was present or not, compared to the ADHD-CT alone group. CONCLUSIONS: There is emerging evidence that DD and anxiety may represent a different phenotypic expression of a common underlying aetiological process, while the co-occurrence of ADHD-CT and anxiety disorders remains unclear. Only the ADHD-CT and DD group is significantly associated with major depressive disorder, which suggests an additive effect. In contrast, conduct disorder and decreased verbal and fullscale IQ are only associated with the ADHD-CT group, which may suggest a protective effect of DD when comorbid with ADHD-CT. From a research perspective, it is important to confirm these found associations in larger samples derived from epidemiological populations. SN - 0004-8674 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15860023/Characteristics_of_internalizing_and_externalizing_disorders_in_medication_naive_clinically_referred_children_with_attention_deficit_hyperactivity_disorder_combined_type_and_dysthymic_disorder_ L2 - https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1080/j.1440-1614.2005.01582.x?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -