Hangover frequency and risk for alcohol use disorders: evidence from a longitudinal high-risk study.J Abnorm Psychol 2005; 114(2):223-34JA
Data from a prospective high-risk study (N=489; 51% with a family history of alcoholism) were used to test whether family history is associated with greater hangover proneness and whether hangover is a risk factor for alcohol use disorders. Hangover was more frequent in family-history-positive participants during the college years. Persons with an alcohol diagnosis showed excess hangover before earning a diagnosis. Year 1 hangover predicted alcohol use disorders at Years 7 and 11, even when family history, sex, Year 1 diagnoses, and Year 1 drinking were statistically controlled. Several nonhangover drinking symptoms failed to predict later diagnoses. Taken together, the findings suggest a need for further research and theory on the role of hangover in the etiology of drinking problems.