Differential response of plasma and immune cell's vitamin E levels to physical activity and antioxidant vitamin supplementation.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jun; 59(6):781-8.EJ
To assess the differential response of plasma, lymphocyte and neutrophil vitamin E levels to high-intensity physical activity and to vitamin C and E supplementation.
In all, 14 male trained amateur runners (32-36 y old) were randomly divided in two groups (supplemented and placebo), and participated in a half marathon race. The subjects did not take any other supplements than the ones provided for this study.
Vitamin C (152 mg/day) and E (50 mg/day) supplementation was administrated to athletes for a month, using a new almond-based isotonic and energetic beverage (supplemented group). The usual dietary habits of participants were assessed using a self-reported 7-day 24-h recall before the day of the study. To avoid the beverage influence, nonenriched vitamin C and E almond-based isotonic and energetic beverage was given to the placebo group. After 1 month, subjects participated in a half marathon race (21 km run). Vitamin E concentration was determined in plasma, neutrophils and lymphocytes before and immediately after the race, and 3 h after finishing the race.
Daily energy intake and caloric profile of supplemented and placebo group were not different except for vitamin C and E supplementation. Vitamin supplementation and exercise had no effect on vitamins E levels in plasma. The exercise significantly (P<0.05) increased the lymphocyte vitamin E concentration both in the placebo (+119%) and supplemented groups (+128%), and neutrophil vitamin E content in the supplemented group (+88%). These levels remained significantly (P<0.05) high after the short recovery. After exercise, vitamin E levels in lymphocytes and neutrophils of supplemented subjects were practically twice the levels before exercise, whereas neutrophil vitamin E content of the placebo group was close to those in plasma.
After endurance exercise, lymphocytes increased their vitamin E content in the supplemented and placebo subjects whereas this trend in neutrophils was just observed in the supplemented group. The determination of vitamin E content in lymphocytes and neutrophils after exercise is a useful tool to assess the functional status of vitamin E.