Significant differential effects of lower doses of hormone therapy or tibolone on markers of cardiovascular disease in post-menopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study.Eur Heart J 2005; 26(14):1362-8EH
We have previously reported that lower doses of hormone therapy (L-HT) and tibolone have different effects on markers of cardiovascular disease when compared with conventional doses of HT. The objective was to compare the effects of L-HT and tibolone on lipid profile, vasodilation, and factors associated with inflammation and haemostasis.
METHODS AND RESULTS
Forty-one women received a combination of micronized progesterone 100 mg with conjugated equine estrogen 0.3 mg vs. tibolone 2.5 mg alone daily in random order during 2 months with 2 months washout period. When compared with L-HT, tibolone significantly reduced total cholesterol (P<0.001), triglyceride (P<0.001), HDL cholesterol (P<0.001) levels, and triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratios (P=0.004) except total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratios. Tibolone improved flow-mediated response to hyperaemia from baseline values (P<0.001) by a similar magnitude to L-HT. L-HT and tibolone did not increase high-sensitivity C-reactive protein relative to baseline values. L-HT reduced antithrombin III from baseline values (P=0.037), compared with tibolone showing no changes. However, there was no difference between either. In contrast, tibolone increased pro-thrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2) from baseline values (P=0.002), compared with L-HT showing no changes. Tibolone significantly reduced plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) antigen levels from baseline values (P=0.004), compared with L-HT showing no changes. The effects of L-HT and tibolone on F1+2 and PAI-1 were significantly different (P=0.045 and P=0.008, respectively).
Both tibolone and L-HT improved flow-mediated response by a similar magnitude and did not significantly increase high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. However, tibolone significantly reduced PAI-1, but increased F1+2 more than L-HT.