Myeloid enzymes profile related to the immunophenotypic characteristics of blast cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at diagnosis.Neoplasma. 2005; 52(3):211-8.N
The purpose of this study was to assess the possible relationship between the cytochemical enzyme profile and immunophenotypic characteristics of distinct acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes in discrete stages of leukemic cells maturation. As the proportion of leukemic blast cells is critical for exact cytochemical analysis, study was restricted to the evaluation of 48 adult and pediatric patients with newly diagnosed AMLs with 80% or more blasts in analyzed samples. The cytochemical investigation of myeloperoxidase (MPO), Sudan black B (SBB), chloroacetate esterase (CAE), alpha-naphthyl butyrate esterase (ANBE), alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) and acid phosphatase (AP) in peripheral blood and/or bone marrow was performed. The immunophenotype was examined for the maturation dependent myeloid antigens CD13, CD33, CD11b, CD14, CD15, CD65, CD36, cytoplasmic MPO, non-lineage associated CD34 and HLA-DR antigens, lymphoid- associated antigens CD7, CD4, CD38 as well as natural killer cell associated marker CD56. Flow cytometry by double marker staining and visualization of pathologic cells in dot plots reflected immunophenotypic aberrancy and degree of cell maturation. The patients were classified into AML subtypes M0- M2, M3, M4 and M5 according to the main morphological, cytochemical and immunophenotypical features. The variable combinations of MPO, SBB, CAE and ANBE were identified in relation to immunophenotype. The cytochemical profile of blasts was in concordance with immunophenotype, particularly in more differentiated AML subtypes, M3, M4 and M5. The findings of myeloid antigens expression and cytochemical features in poorly differentiated AML subtypes showed no practical relevance of cytochemical analysis. Notwithstanding that the cytochemical analysis of AML subtypes not sufficiently identifies the distinct aberrancies in heterogeneous leukemic blast cell populations, evaluation of the cytochemical profile in connection with immunophenotyping may help to classify the AML patients to relevant subtypes with more accuracy.