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Streptococcus pneumoniae and noncapsular Haemophilus influenzae nasal carriage and hand contamination in children: a comparison of two populations at risk of otitis media.
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005 May; 24(5):423-8.PI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Australian Indigenous children living in remote areas have rates of tympanic membrane perforation as high as 60%, almost 100 times the prevalence in urban child care settings (<1%). Relative rates of pneumococcal nasal carriage do not reflect this difference in disease risk.

METHODS

Cross-sectional comparison of nasal carriage and hand contamination in children younger than 4 years of age from urban child-care centers and Indigenous children 3-7 years of age from a remote community. Almost identical methods of nasal swab collection, transport and culture were used. Data on pneumococcal antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and serotypes are also reported.

RESULTS

For Indigenous children compared with children in child care, the relative risk of nasal carriage of either pneumococcus or noncapsular Haemophilus influenzae was <2-fold [relative risk, 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5, 1.9], the risk of simultaneous nasal carriage was almost 3-fold (78% versus 28%; relative risk, 2.9; 95% CI 2.3, 3.5), and the risk of pneumococcal hand contamination was 8-fold higher (37% versus 4%; relative risk, 8.4; 95% CI 4.6, 15.2). For simultaneous hand contamination, the risk was 23-fold (8% versus 0.3%; relative risk, 23.1; 95% CI 2.9, 185.4). Remote Indigenous children also had a more diverse serotype distribution (25 versus 14 serotypes identified).

CONCLUSIONS

Simultaneous nasal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and H. influenzae and hand contamination are simple indicators of risk for use in studies of otitis media in populations at risk for tympanic membrane perforation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Menzies School of Health Research and the Institute of Advanced Studies, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15876941

Citation

Stubbs, Elizabeth, et al. "Streptococcus Pneumoniae and Noncapsular Haemophilus Influenzae Nasal Carriage and Hand Contamination in Children: a Comparison of Two Populations at Risk of Otitis Media." The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 24, no. 5, 2005, pp. 423-8.
Stubbs E, Hare K, Wilson C, et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae and noncapsular Haemophilus influenzae nasal carriage and hand contamination in children: a comparison of two populations at risk of otitis media. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24(5):423-8.
Stubbs, E., Hare, K., Wilson, C., Morris, P., & Leach, A. J. (2005). Streptococcus pneumoniae and noncapsular Haemophilus influenzae nasal carriage and hand contamination in children: a comparison of two populations at risk of otitis media. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 24(5), 423-8.
Stubbs E, et al. Streptococcus Pneumoniae and Noncapsular Haemophilus Influenzae Nasal Carriage and Hand Contamination in Children: a Comparison of Two Populations at Risk of Otitis Media. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24(5):423-8. PubMed PMID: 15876941.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Streptococcus pneumoniae and noncapsular Haemophilus influenzae nasal carriage and hand contamination in children: a comparison of two populations at risk of otitis media. AU - Stubbs,Elizabeth, AU - Hare,Kim, AU - Wilson,Cate, AU - Morris,Peter, AU - Leach,Amanda Jane, PY - 2005/5/7/pubmed PY - 2005/7/1/medline PY - 2005/5/7/entrez SP - 423 EP - 8 JF - The Pediatric infectious disease journal JO - Pediatr Infect Dis J VL - 24 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Australian Indigenous children living in remote areas have rates of tympanic membrane perforation as high as 60%, almost 100 times the prevalence in urban child care settings (<1%). Relative rates of pneumococcal nasal carriage do not reflect this difference in disease risk. METHODS: Cross-sectional comparison of nasal carriage and hand contamination in children younger than 4 years of age from urban child-care centers and Indigenous children 3-7 years of age from a remote community. Almost identical methods of nasal swab collection, transport and culture were used. Data on pneumococcal antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and serotypes are also reported. RESULTS: For Indigenous children compared with children in child care, the relative risk of nasal carriage of either pneumococcus or noncapsular Haemophilus influenzae was <2-fold [relative risk, 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5, 1.9], the risk of simultaneous nasal carriage was almost 3-fold (78% versus 28%; relative risk, 2.9; 95% CI 2.3, 3.5), and the risk of pneumococcal hand contamination was 8-fold higher (37% versus 4%; relative risk, 8.4; 95% CI 4.6, 15.2). For simultaneous hand contamination, the risk was 23-fold (8% versus 0.3%; relative risk, 23.1; 95% CI 2.9, 185.4). Remote Indigenous children also had a more diverse serotype distribution (25 versus 14 serotypes identified). CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous nasal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and H. influenzae and hand contamination are simple indicators of risk for use in studies of otitis media in populations at risk for tympanic membrane perforation. SN - 0891-3668 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15876941/Streptococcus_pneumoniae_and_noncapsular_Haemophilus_influenzae_nasal_carriage_and_hand_contamination_in_children:_a_comparison_of_two_populations_at_risk_of_otitis_media_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1097/01.inf.0000160945.87356.ca DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -