Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Sex-related differences in stimulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during induced gonadal suppression.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90(7):4224-31JC

Abstract

CONTEXT

Sex-related differences in the stress response are well described in the animal literature but in humans are inconsistent and appear to reflect both the method used to stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the age of the subjects. Sex-related differences in reproductive steroid levels further confound efforts to define the specific role of the sex of the individual in stress axis responsivity.

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to address this role independent of differences in reproductive steroid levels. We compared HPA axis response to pharmacological (CRH) and physiological (exercise) stressors in two groups of young to middle-aged (18-45 yr) men (n = 10 and 8) and women (n = 12 and 13) undergoing gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate (monthly im injection of 7.5 mg in men and 3.75 mg in women).

DESIGN

Exercise and CRH stimulation tests were performed during induced hypogonadal conditions.

SETTING

The study was conducted at a National Institutes of Health Clinical Center Outpatient Clinic. PATIENT OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Male and female normal volunteers participated in the study.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

The main outcome measures were stimulated ACTH and cortisol levels.

RESULTS

Both CRH (1 microg/kg) stimulation and graded treadmill exercise stimulation occurred in the month after the second leuprolide injection to ensure gonadal suppression. Despite the absence of sex differences in estradiol or testosterone at the time of testing, men showed increased stimulated ACTH (repeated-measures ANOVA for CRH, P < 0.005) and cortisol (repeated-measures ANOVA for exercise, P < 0.05) compared with women. Among the summary measures, area under the curve (AUC) for cortisol was significantly greater in men than women after exercise. Although the AUC for ACTH was not significantly different across sexes, the initial AUC (0-30 min) was significantly greater in men for both procedures. No significant sex differences were found in a measure of adrenal responsivity, the cortisol to ACTH ratio, for either procedure. Cortisol-binding globulin levels did not differ between men and women and were not correlated with stimulated HPA axis measures. These data confirm earlier reports of sex differences in stimulated HPA axis activity and demonstrate that these differences exist even under induced hypogonadal conditions (i.e. in the absence of characteristic differences in reproductive steroids).

Authors+Show Affiliations

Office of Special Populations, National Institute of Mental Health, Rockville, Maryland 20857, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15886244

Citation

Roca, Catherine A., et al. "Sex-related Differences in Stimulated Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis During Induced Gonadal Suppression." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 90, no. 7, 2005, pp. 4224-31.
Roca CA, Schmidt PJ, Deuster PA, et al. Sex-related differences in stimulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during induced gonadal suppression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(7):4224-31.
Roca, C. A., Schmidt, P. J., Deuster, P. A., Danaceau, M. A., Altemus, M., Putnam, K., ... Rubinow, D. R. (2005). Sex-related differences in stimulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during induced gonadal suppression. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90(7), pp. 4224-31.
Roca CA, et al. Sex-related Differences in Stimulated Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis During Induced Gonadal Suppression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(7):4224-31. PubMed PMID: 15886244.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Sex-related differences in stimulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during induced gonadal suppression. AU - Roca,Catherine A, AU - Schmidt,Peter J, AU - Deuster,Patricia A, AU - Danaceau,Merry A, AU - Altemus,Margaret, AU - Putnam,Karen, AU - Chrousos,George P, AU - Nieman,Lynnette K, AU - Rubinow,David R, Y1 - 2005/05/10/ PY - 2005/5/12/pubmed PY - 2005/8/10/medline PY - 2005/5/12/entrez SP - 4224 EP - 31 JF - The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism JO - J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. VL - 90 IS - 7 N2 - CONTEXT: Sex-related differences in the stress response are well described in the animal literature but in humans are inconsistent and appear to reflect both the method used to stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the age of the subjects. Sex-related differences in reproductive steroid levels further confound efforts to define the specific role of the sex of the individual in stress axis responsivity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to address this role independent of differences in reproductive steroid levels. We compared HPA axis response to pharmacological (CRH) and physiological (exercise) stressors in two groups of young to middle-aged (18-45 yr) men (n = 10 and 8) and women (n = 12 and 13) undergoing gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate (monthly im injection of 7.5 mg in men and 3.75 mg in women). DESIGN: Exercise and CRH stimulation tests were performed during induced hypogonadal conditions. SETTING: The study was conducted at a National Institutes of Health Clinical Center Outpatient Clinic. PATIENT OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Male and female normal volunteers participated in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures were stimulated ACTH and cortisol levels. RESULTS: Both CRH (1 microg/kg) stimulation and graded treadmill exercise stimulation occurred in the month after the second leuprolide injection to ensure gonadal suppression. Despite the absence of sex differences in estradiol or testosterone at the time of testing, men showed increased stimulated ACTH (repeated-measures ANOVA for CRH, P < 0.005) and cortisol (repeated-measures ANOVA for exercise, P < 0.05) compared with women. Among the summary measures, area under the curve (AUC) for cortisol was significantly greater in men than women after exercise. Although the AUC for ACTH was not significantly different across sexes, the initial AUC (0-30 min) was significantly greater in men for both procedures. No significant sex differences were found in a measure of adrenal responsivity, the cortisol to ACTH ratio, for either procedure. Cortisol-binding globulin levels did not differ between men and women and were not correlated with stimulated HPA axis measures. These data confirm earlier reports of sex differences in stimulated HPA axis activity and demonstrate that these differences exist even under induced hypogonadal conditions (i.e. in the absence of characteristic differences in reproductive steroids). SN - 0021-972X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15886244/Sex_related_differences_in_stimulated_hypothalamic_pituitary_adrenal_axis_during_induced_gonadal_suppression_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article-lookup/doi/10.1210/jc.2004-2525 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -