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Effects of caffeine and caffeine withdrawal on mood and cognitive performance degraded by sleep restriction.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2005; 179(4):742-52P

Abstract

RATIONALE

It has been suggested that caffeine is most likely to benefit mood and performance when alertness is low.

OBJECTIVES

To measure the effects of caffeine on psychomotor and cognitive performance, mood, blood pressure and heart rate in sleep-restricted participants. To do this in a group of participants who had also been previously deprived of caffeine for 3 weeks, thereby potentially removing the confounding effects of acute caffeine withdrawal.

METHODS

Participants were moderate to moderate-high caffeine consumers who were provided with either decaffeinated tea and/or coffee for 3 weeks (LTW) or regular tea and/or coffee for 3 weeks (overnight caffeine-withdrawn participants, ONW). Then, following overnight caffeine abstinence, they were tested on a battery of tasks assessing mood, cognitive performance, etc. before and after receiving caffeine (1.2 mg/kg) or on another day after receiving placebo.

RESULTS

Final analyses were based on 17 long-term caffeine-withdrawn participants (LTW) and 17 ONW participants whose salivary caffeine levels on each test day confirmed probable compliance with the instructions concerning restrictions on consumption of caffeine-containing drinks. Acute caffeine withdrawal (ONW) had a number of negative effects, including impairment of cognitive performance, increased headache, and reduced alertness and clear-headedness. Caffeine (versus placebo) did not significantly improve cognitive performance in LTW participants, although it prevented further deterioration of performance in ONW participants. Caffeine increased tapping speed (but tended to impair hand steadiness), increased blood pressure, and had some effects on mood in both groups.

CONCLUSIONS

The findings provide strong support for the withdrawal reversal hypothesis. In particular, cognitive performance was found to be affected adversely by acute caffeine withdrawal and, even in the context of alertness lowered by sleep restriction, cognitive performance was not improved by caffeine in the absence of these withdrawal effects. Different patterns of effects (or lack of effects) of caffeine and caffeine withdrawal were found for other variables, but overall these results also suggest that there is little benefit to be gained from caffeine consumption.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, 8 Woodland Road, Bristol, BS8 1TN, UK. Peter.Rogers@bristol.ac.ukNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15887055

Citation

Rogers, Peter J., et al. "Effects of Caffeine and Caffeine Withdrawal On Mood and Cognitive Performance Degraded By Sleep Restriction." Psychopharmacology, vol. 179, no. 4, 2005, pp. 742-52.
Rogers PJ, Heatherley SV, Hayward RC, et al. Effects of caffeine and caffeine withdrawal on mood and cognitive performance degraded by sleep restriction. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005;179(4):742-52.
Rogers, P. J., Heatherley, S. V., Hayward, R. C., Seers, H. E., Hill, J., & Kane, M. (2005). Effects of caffeine and caffeine withdrawal on mood and cognitive performance degraded by sleep restriction. Psychopharmacology, 179(4), pp. 742-52.
Rogers PJ, et al. Effects of Caffeine and Caffeine Withdrawal On Mood and Cognitive Performance Degraded By Sleep Restriction. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005;179(4):742-52. PubMed PMID: 15887055.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of caffeine and caffeine withdrawal on mood and cognitive performance degraded by sleep restriction. AU - Rogers,Peter J, AU - Heatherley,Susan V, AU - Hayward,Robert C, AU - Seers,Helen E, AU - Hill,Joanne, AU - Kane,Marian, Y1 - 2005/01/26/ PY - 2004/04/07/received PY - 2004/10/14/accepted PY - 2005/5/12/pubmed PY - 2005/9/16/medline PY - 2005/5/12/entrez SP - 742 EP - 52 JF - Psychopharmacology JO - Psychopharmacology (Berl.) VL - 179 IS - 4 N2 - RATIONALE: It has been suggested that caffeine is most likely to benefit mood and performance when alertness is low. OBJECTIVES: To measure the effects of caffeine on psychomotor and cognitive performance, mood, blood pressure and heart rate in sleep-restricted participants. To do this in a group of participants who had also been previously deprived of caffeine for 3 weeks, thereby potentially removing the confounding effects of acute caffeine withdrawal. METHODS: Participants were moderate to moderate-high caffeine consumers who were provided with either decaffeinated tea and/or coffee for 3 weeks (LTW) or regular tea and/or coffee for 3 weeks (overnight caffeine-withdrawn participants, ONW). Then, following overnight caffeine abstinence, they were tested on a battery of tasks assessing mood, cognitive performance, etc. before and after receiving caffeine (1.2 mg/kg) or on another day after receiving placebo. RESULTS: Final analyses were based on 17 long-term caffeine-withdrawn participants (LTW) and 17 ONW participants whose salivary caffeine levels on each test day confirmed probable compliance with the instructions concerning restrictions on consumption of caffeine-containing drinks. Acute caffeine withdrawal (ONW) had a number of negative effects, including impairment of cognitive performance, increased headache, and reduced alertness and clear-headedness. Caffeine (versus placebo) did not significantly improve cognitive performance in LTW participants, although it prevented further deterioration of performance in ONW participants. Caffeine increased tapping speed (but tended to impair hand steadiness), increased blood pressure, and had some effects on mood in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide strong support for the withdrawal reversal hypothesis. In particular, cognitive performance was found to be affected adversely by acute caffeine withdrawal and, even in the context of alertness lowered by sleep restriction, cognitive performance was not improved by caffeine in the absence of these withdrawal effects. Different patterns of effects (or lack of effects) of caffeine and caffeine withdrawal were found for other variables, but overall these results also suggest that there is little benefit to be gained from caffeine consumption. SN - 0033-3158 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15887055/Effects_of_caffeine_and_caffeine_withdrawal_on_mood_and_cognitive_performance_degraded_by_sleep_restriction_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-004-2097-y DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -