A bispecific recombinant immunotoxin, DT2219, targeting human CD19 and CD22 receptors in a mouse xenograft model of B-cell leukemia/lymphoma.Clin Cancer Res. 2005 May 15; 11(10):3879-88.CC
A novel bispecific single-chain fusion protein, DT2219, was assembled consisting of the catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin (DT(390)) fused to two repeating sFv subunits recognizing CD19 and CD22 and expressed in Escherichia coli. Problems with yield, purity, and aggregation in the refolding step were solved by incorporating a segment of human muscle aldolase and by using a sodium N-lauroyl-sarcosine detergent-based refolding procedure. Problems with reduced efficacy were addressed by combining the anti-CD19 and anti-CD22 on the same single-chain molecule. DT2219 had greater anticancer activity than monomeric or bivalent immunotoxins made with anti-CD19 and anti-CD22 sFv alone and it showed a higher level of binding to patient leukemia cells and to CD19(+)CD22(+) Daudi or Raji cells than did anti-CD19 and anti-CD22 parental monoclonal antibodies. The resulting DT2219, mutated to enhance its avidity, was cytotoxic to Daudi cells in vitro (IC(50) = 0.3 nmol/L). In vivo, DT2219 was effective in a flank tumor therapy model in which it significantly inhibited tumor growth (P < 0.05) and in a systemic model in which it significantly prolonged survival of severe combined immunodeficient mice with established Daudi (P < 0.008) compared with controls. DT2219 has broader reactivity in recognizing B-cell malignancies, has more killing power, and requires less toxin than using individual immunotoxin, which warrants further investigation as a new drug for treating B leukemia/lymphoma.