Hypocitraturia as a pathogenic risk factor in the mixed (calcium oxalate/uric acid) renal stones.Urol Int. 1992; 48(3):342-6.UI
A small group of patients with nephrolithiasis who forms mixed (calcium oxalate and uric acid) calculi presents particular problems in their clinical management. In 3,158 stones analyzed in our laboratory, we found 158 mixed calculi in 86 of the patients. In this work, the clinical and biochemical results obtained from 27 patients with mixed stones were compared with those from 27 control patients with calcium oxalate renal lithiasis. A significant difference was found in oxalate and citrate urinary elimination (mean +/- SD) in mixed stone formers versus pure calcium oxalate stone formers: oxaluria (mg/24 h: 38 +/- 15 vs. 28 +/- 12; p less than 0.01) and citraturia (mg/24 h: 214 +/- 139 vs. 437 +/- 303; p less than 0.01). Citraturia was decreased in a high proportion (77%) in mixed stone formers, and only a reduced percentage of them (23%) presented normal values, although in the low limit of normality. As treatment and prophylactic measure, we proposed oral administration of citrates in mixed stone patients because citrate inhibits spontaneous nucleation of calcium salts and crystal growth, and it also increases the urinary pH with a consequent increase in uric acid solubility.