Quantitative detection of ketamine, norketamine, and dehydronorketamine in urine using chemical derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005 Jun 25; 820(2):165-73.JC
A repeatable and highly sensitive analytical method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM) is developed for the simultaneous detection of ketamine (KT), norketamine (NK), and newly introduced dehydronorketamine (DHNK) in urine. The test specimen along with the deuterium analogues as internal standards (IS): d4-KT for KT and d4-NK for NK/DHNK, was extracted on an automatic solid-phase extraction (SPE) apparatus. The extracted eluate then was dried and derivatized with N-methyl-bis(trifluoroacetamide) (CF3CONCH3COCF3, MBTFA). Finally, the cooled derivatized solution was directly injected into the GC-MS system for analysis. The proposed process achieves high sensitivity for the detection of KT, NK, and DHNK. Correlation coefficients derived from typical calibration curves in the range of 20-2000 ng/mL are 1.000 for KT and NK, 0.999 for DHNK. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantitation (LOQs) are 0.5-1.0 and 1.5-3.0, respectively. The overall method recoveries of KT, NK, and DHNK are 82.2-93.4. The intra- and inter-day run deviations are smaller than 5.0%. The analytical scheme was also applied to the determination of KT, NK, and DHNK in 20 KT suspected urine specimens, and the results reconfirm that DHNK is a main metabolite of KT.