Six-year follow-up of pancreatic beta cell function in adults with latent autoimmune diabetes.World J Gastroenterol. 2005 May 21; 11(19):2900-5.WJ
To investigate the characteristics of the progression of islet beta cell function in Chinese latent autoimmune diabetes in adult (LADA) patients with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GAD-Ab) positivity, and to explore the prognostic factors for beta cell function.
Forty-five LADA patients with GAD-Ab positivity screened from phenotypic type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients and 45 T2DM patients without GAD-Ab matched as controls were followed-up every 6 mo. Sixteen patients in LADA1 and T2DM1 groups respectively have been followed-up for 6 years, while 29 patients in LADA2 and T2DM2 groups respectively for only 1.5 years. GAD-Ab was determined by radioligand assay, and C-peptides (CP) by radioimmune assay.
The percentage of patients whose fasting CP (FCP) decreased more than 50% compared with the baseline reached to 25.0% at 1.5(th) year in LADA1 group, and FCP level decreased (395.8+/-71.5 vs 572.8+/-72.3 pmol/L, P<0.05) at 2.5(th) year and continuously went down to the end of follow-up. No significant changes of the above parameters were found in T2DM1 group. The average decreased percentages of FCP per year in LADA and T2DM patients were 15.8% (4.0-91.0%) and 5.2% (-3.5 to 35.5%, P=0.000) respectively. The index of GAD-Ab was negatively correlated with the FCP in LADA patients (r(s)=-0.483, P=0.000). The decreased percentage of FCP per year in LADA patients were correlated with GAD-Ab index, body mass index (BMI) and age at onset (r(s)=0.408, -0.301 and -0.523 respectively, P<0.05). Moreover, GAD-Ab was the only risk factor for predicting beta cell failure in LADA patients (B=1.455, EXP (B)=4.283, P=0.023).
The decreasing rate of islet beta cell function in LADA, being highly heterogeneous, is three times that of T2DM patients. The titer of GAD-Ab is an important predictor for the progression of islet beta cell function, and age at onset and BMI could also act as the predictors.