The antiviral activity of sulfated polysaccharides against dengue virus is dependent on virus serotype and host cell.Antiviral Res. 2005 Jun; 66(2-3):103-10.AR
Two homogeneous sulfated polysaccharides obtained from the red seaweeds Gymnogongrus griffithsiae and Cryptonemia crenulata, the kappa/iota/nu carrageenan G3d and the dl-galactan hybrid C2S-3, were assayed for their antiviral properties against the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) in different host cell types. Both seaweed derivatives were selective inhibitors of DENV-2 multiplication in Vero cells with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) values around 1 microg/ml and selectivity indices > 1000. The compounds had a lower antiviral effect against DENV-3 (IC50 values in the range 13.9-14.2 microg/ml), an even lower effect against DENV-4 (IC50 values in the range 29.3 to > 50 microg/ml) and were totally inactive against DENV-1. With respect to the host cell, the polysulfates were inhibitors of DENV-2 and DENV-3 in the human hepatoma HepG2 and foreskin PH cells, with similar antiviral effectiveness as in Vero cells, but were totally inactive in mosquito C6/36 HT cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that G3d and C2S-3 were active DENV-2 inhibitors only when added together with the virus or early after infection, and both initial processes of virus adsorption and internalization are the main targets of these compounds. Therefore, the variations in antiviral activity of the polysaccharides depending on the viral serotype and the host cell may be ascribed to differences in the virus-cell interaction leading to virus entry.