Solid phase micro-extraction coupled with ion mobility spectrometry for the analysis of ephedrine in urine.J Sep Sci. 2005 May; 28(7):612-8.JS
Quantitative solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled with ion mobility spectrometry is demonstrated using the analysis of ephedrine in urine. Since its inception in the 1970's ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has evolved into a useful technique for laboratories to detect explosives, chemical warfare agents, environment pollutants and, increasingly, for detecting drugs of abuse. Ephedrine is extracted directly from urine samples using SPME and the analyte on the fiber is heated by the IMS desorber unit and vaporized into the drift tube. The analytical procedure was optimized for fiber coating selection, extraction temperature, extraction time, sample pH, and analyte desorption temperature. The carryover effects, ion fragmentation characteristics, peak shapes, and drift times of ephedrine were also evaluated based on the direct interfacing of SPME to IMS. A limit of detection of 50 ng/mL of ephedrine in urine and a linear range of 3 orders of magnitude were obtained, showing that SPME-IMS compares well to other techniques for ephedrine and drug analysis presented in the literature.