Impact of high pressure and pulsed electric fields on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of orange juice in comparison with traditional thermal processing.J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jun 01; 53(11):4403-9.JA
Bioactive compounds (vitamin C, carotenoids, and flavanones) and DPPH* radical scavenging capacity (RSC) were measured in orange juice (OJ) subjected to different technologies. High pressure (HP) (400 MPa/40 degrees C/1 min), pulsed electric fields (PEF) (35 kVcm(-1)/750 micros), low pasteurization (LPT) (70 degrees C/30 s), high pasteurization (HPT) (90 degrees C/1 min), HPT plus freezing (HPT+F) (-38 degrees C/15 min), and freezing (F) were studied. Among the treatments assayed, even though the losses in total vitamin C were < 9%, treatments with the higher temperatures tended to show the higher decrease in the content of both forms of vitamin C. HP treatment led to an increased (P < 0.05) carotenoid release (53.88%) and vitamin A value (38.74%). PEF treatment did not modify individual or total carotenoids content. Traditional thermal treatments did not exert any effect on total carotenoid content or vitamin A value. With regard to individual carotenoid extraction, HPT and HPT+F led to different releases of carotenoids. With respect to flavanones, HP treatment led to increased (P < 0.05) naringenin (20.16%) and hesperetin (39.88%) contents, whereas PEF treatment did not modify flavanone content. In general, pasteurization and freezing process led to a diminished (P < 0.05) naringenin content (16.04%), with no modification in hesperetin. HP and PEF treatments did not modify DPPH* RSC. In the case of traditional thermal technologies, HPT treatment showed a decrease (P < 0.05) in RSC (6.56%), whereas LPT, HPT+F, and F treatments did not modify RSC. Vitamin C modulated RSC, in terms of antioxidant concentration (EC50) and kinetics (AE = 1/EC50TEC50), in the treated and untreated OJ. In summary, HP and PEF technologies were more effective than HPT treatment in preserving bioactive compounds and RSC of freshly squeezed orange juice.