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Metal contamination in urban, suburban, and country park soils of Hong Kong: a study based on GIS and multivariate statistics.
Sci Total Environ. 2006 Mar 01; 356(1-3):45-61.ST

Abstract

The urban environment quality is of vital importance as the majority of people now live in cities. Due to the continuous urbanisation and industrialisation in many parts of the world, metals are continuously emitted into the terrestrial environment and pose a great threat on human health. An extensive survey was conducted in the highly urbanised and commercialised Hong Kong Island area (80.3 km2) of Hong Kong using a systematic sampling strategy of five soil samples per km2 in urban areas and two samples per km2 in the suburban and country park sites (0-15 cm). The analytical results indicated that the surface soils in urban and suburban areas are enriched with metals, such as Cu, Pb, and Zn. The Pb concentration in the urban soils was found to exceed the Dutch target value. The statistical analyses using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) showed distinctly different associations among trace metals and the major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn) in the urban, suburban, and country park soils. Soil pollution maps of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the surface soils were produced based on geographical information system (GIS) technology. The hot-spot areas of metal contamination were mainly concentrated in the northern and western parts of Hong Kong Island, and closely related to high traffic conditions. The Pb isotopic composition of the urban, suburban, and country park soils showed that vehicular emissions were the major anthropogenic sources for Pb. The 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios in soils decreased as Pb concentrations increased in a polynomial line (degree=2).

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15913711

Citation

Lee, Celine Siu-Lan, et al. "Metal Contamination in Urban, Suburban, and Country Park Soils of Hong Kong: a Study Based On GIS and Multivariate Statistics." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 356, no. 1-3, 2006, pp. 45-61.
Lee CS, Li X, Shi W, et al. Metal contamination in urban, suburban, and country park soils of Hong Kong: a study based on GIS and multivariate statistics. Sci Total Environ. 2006;356(1-3):45-61.
Lee, C. S., Li, X., Shi, W., Cheung, S. C., & Thornton, I. (2006). Metal contamination in urban, suburban, and country park soils of Hong Kong: a study based on GIS and multivariate statistics. The Science of the Total Environment, 356(1-3), 45-61.
Lee CS, et al. Metal Contamination in Urban, Suburban, and Country Park Soils of Hong Kong: a Study Based On GIS and Multivariate Statistics. Sci Total Environ. 2006 Mar 1;356(1-3):45-61. PubMed PMID: 15913711.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Metal contamination in urban, suburban, and country park soils of Hong Kong: a study based on GIS and multivariate statistics. AU - Lee,Celine Siu-Lan, AU - Li,Xiangdong, AU - Shi,Wenzhong, AU - Cheung,Sharon Ching-nga, AU - Thornton,Iain, PY - 2005/03/18/received PY - 2005/03/21/accepted PY - 2005/5/26/pubmed PY - 2006/4/21/medline PY - 2005/5/26/entrez SP - 45 EP - 61 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci Total Environ VL - 356 IS - 1-3 N2 - The urban environment quality is of vital importance as the majority of people now live in cities. Due to the continuous urbanisation and industrialisation in many parts of the world, metals are continuously emitted into the terrestrial environment and pose a great threat on human health. An extensive survey was conducted in the highly urbanised and commercialised Hong Kong Island area (80.3 km2) of Hong Kong using a systematic sampling strategy of five soil samples per km2 in urban areas and two samples per km2 in the suburban and country park sites (0-15 cm). The analytical results indicated that the surface soils in urban and suburban areas are enriched with metals, such as Cu, Pb, and Zn. The Pb concentration in the urban soils was found to exceed the Dutch target value. The statistical analyses using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) showed distinctly different associations among trace metals and the major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn) in the urban, suburban, and country park soils. Soil pollution maps of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the surface soils were produced based on geographical information system (GIS) technology. The hot-spot areas of metal contamination were mainly concentrated in the northern and western parts of Hong Kong Island, and closely related to high traffic conditions. The Pb isotopic composition of the urban, suburban, and country park soils showed that vehicular emissions were the major anthropogenic sources for Pb. The 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios in soils decreased as Pb concentrations increased in a polynomial line (degree=2). SN - 0048-9697 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15913711/Metal_contamination_in_urban_suburban_and_country_park_soils_of_Hong_Kong:_a_study_based_on_GIS_and_multivariate_statistics_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -