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Body composition and physical fitness of undernourished South African rural primary school children.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul; 59(7):877-83.EJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the body composition characteristics, body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds (SSF), % body fat (%BF), fat-free mass (FFM) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and nine physical fitness items in undernourished rural primary school children in Ellisras, South Africa.

DESIGN

A cross-sectional study.

SETTING

The study consisted of 462 boys and 393 girls who were aged 7-14 y.

MEASUREMENTS

Five body composition measures were assessed: BMI, SSF, %BF, FFM and WHR. Nine physical fitness test items were assessed: standing long jump, bent arm hang, sit-ups, 10 x 5 m shuttle run, 50 m sprint, 1600 m run, flamingo balance, sit and reach, plate tapping.

RESULTS

BMI was highly correlated with FFM (r = 0.7, P < 0.001). In line with findings from Western countries, regression coefficients (B) showed that children with higher BMI or SSF performed worse in bent arm hang (girls, B = -0.84, P < 0.001, and B = -0.06, P = 0.02, respectively) and in 1600m run (B = 6.68, P < 0.001). BMI was significantly associated with flamingo balance (B = 0.26, P = 0.04). WHR was positively associated with bent arm hang (B = 9.37, P = 0.03), and inversely with sit and reach (B = -7.48, P = 0.01). In contrast, significant relationships were found between BMI and standing long jump (B = 0.74, P = 0.04), sit and reach (B = 0.51, P < 0.001), flamingo balance (B = 0.26, P = 0.04) and plate tapping (B = -19, P = 0.01). SSF was significantly associated with sit and reach (B = 0.04, P = 0.03). Significant inverse associations were found between FFM and bent arm hang (girls, B = -0.06, P = 0.05), 1600 m run (girls, B = -2.33, P = 0.003) and 50 m run (boys, B = -0.11, P = 0.006). FFM was significantly associated with standing long jump (boys, B = 0.99, P < 0.001; girls, B = 0.73, P < 0.001), flamingo balance (B = 0.17, P < 0.001), and with sit and reach (boys, B = 0.59, P = 0.03).

CONCLUSION

In the present study in undernourished children, body composition was significantly related to physical fitness, but not always in the expected direction. It is therefore important to note that in this population, BMI should not be interpreted as a measure of fatness/overweight, but rather as an indicator of muscle mass.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School for Biokinetics, Recreation and Sport Science, North West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Potchefstroom, South Africa. mbwmam@puknet.puk.ac.zaNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15915157

Citation

Monyeki, M A., et al. "Body Composition and Physical Fitness of Undernourished South African Rural Primary School Children." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 59, no. 7, 2005, pp. 877-83.
Monyeki MA, Koppes LL, Kemper HC, et al. Body composition and physical fitness of undernourished South African rural primary school children. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59(7):877-83.
Monyeki, M. A., Koppes, L. L., Kemper, H. C., Monyeki, K. D., Toriola, A. L., Pienaar, A. E., & Twisk, J. W. (2005). Body composition and physical fitness of undernourished South African rural primary school children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59(7), 877-83.
Monyeki MA, et al. Body Composition and Physical Fitness of Undernourished South African Rural Primary School Children. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59(7):877-83. PubMed PMID: 15915157.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Body composition and physical fitness of undernourished South African rural primary school children. AU - Monyeki,M A, AU - Koppes,L L J, AU - Kemper,H C G, AU - Monyeki,K D, AU - Toriola,A L, AU - Pienaar,A E, AU - Twisk,J W R, PY - 2005/5/26/pubmed PY - 2005/10/14/medline PY - 2005/5/26/entrez SP - 877 EP - 83 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 59 IS - 7 N2 - OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the body composition characteristics, body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds (SSF), % body fat (%BF), fat-free mass (FFM) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and nine physical fitness items in undernourished rural primary school children in Ellisras, South Africa. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: The study consisted of 462 boys and 393 girls who were aged 7-14 y. MEASUREMENTS: Five body composition measures were assessed: BMI, SSF, %BF, FFM and WHR. Nine physical fitness test items were assessed: standing long jump, bent arm hang, sit-ups, 10 x 5 m shuttle run, 50 m sprint, 1600 m run, flamingo balance, sit and reach, plate tapping. RESULTS: BMI was highly correlated with FFM (r = 0.7, P < 0.001). In line with findings from Western countries, regression coefficients (B) showed that children with higher BMI or SSF performed worse in bent arm hang (girls, B = -0.84, P < 0.001, and B = -0.06, P = 0.02, respectively) and in 1600m run (B = 6.68, P < 0.001). BMI was significantly associated with flamingo balance (B = 0.26, P = 0.04). WHR was positively associated with bent arm hang (B = 9.37, P = 0.03), and inversely with sit and reach (B = -7.48, P = 0.01). In contrast, significant relationships were found between BMI and standing long jump (B = 0.74, P = 0.04), sit and reach (B = 0.51, P < 0.001), flamingo balance (B = 0.26, P = 0.04) and plate tapping (B = -19, P = 0.01). SSF was significantly associated with sit and reach (B = 0.04, P = 0.03). Significant inverse associations were found between FFM and bent arm hang (girls, B = -0.06, P = 0.05), 1600 m run (girls, B = -2.33, P = 0.003) and 50 m run (boys, B = -0.11, P = 0.006). FFM was significantly associated with standing long jump (boys, B = 0.99, P < 0.001; girls, B = 0.73, P < 0.001), flamingo balance (B = 0.17, P < 0.001), and with sit and reach (boys, B = 0.59, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: In the present study in undernourished children, body composition was significantly related to physical fitness, but not always in the expected direction. It is therefore important to note that in this population, BMI should not be interpreted as a measure of fatness/overweight, but rather as an indicator of muscle mass. SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15915157/Body_composition_and_physical_fitness_of_undernourished_South_African_rural_primary_school_children_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602153 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -