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Personal, indoor, and outdoor exposures to PM2.5 and its components for groups of cardiovascular patients in Amsterdam and Helsinki.

Abstract

The aim of the investigation was to assess the relations between pairs of personal, indoor, and outdoor levels of fine particles and their components with respect to effects for older subjects with cardiovascular disease. In the framework of a study funded by the European Union (Exposure and Risk Assessment for Fine and Ultrafine Particles in Ambient Air; referred to as ULTRA)*, panel studies were conducted in Amsterdam (The Netherlands) and Helsinki (Finland). Concentrations of outdoor particulate matter 2.5 pm or smaller in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) were measured at a fixed site in each location. With HEI funding, each subject's personal and indoor PM2.5 exposure was measured every other week for 6 months during the 24-hour period preceding intensive health measurements. Particle reflectance was measured as a marker for diesel exhaust. Elemental content of more than 50% of the personal and indoor samples and all corresponding outdoor samples was measured using x-ray fluorescence (XRF). Ion content (sulfate, nitrate) was measured using chromatography. For Amsterdam, 337 personal and 409 indoor measurements were collected from 37 subjects; for Helsinki, 336 personal and 503 indoor measurements were collected from 47 subjects. Median personal, indoor, and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were 13.6, 13.6, and 16.5 microg/m3 in Amsterdam and 9.2, 9.2, and 11.1 microg/m3 in Helsinki. In both cities, personal and indoor PM2.5 concentrations were lower than and highly correlated with outdoor concentrations (median correlation coefficient [R] 0.7-0.8). For most elements, personal and indoor concentrations were also highly correlated with outdoor concentrations. The highest correlations (median R > 0.9) were found for sulfur (S), sulfate, and particle reflectance (reported as the absorption coefficient). Reflectance was a useful proxy for elemental carbon (EC), but site-specific calibration with EC data is necessary. The findings of this study support using fixed-site measurements as a measure of exposure to PM in time-series studies linking the day-to-day variations in PM to the day-to-day variations in health endpoints, especially for components of PM that are generally associated with fine particles and have few indoor sources.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division of Environmental and Occupational Health (IRAS-EOH), Utrecht University, PO Box 80176, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15916017

Citation

Brunekreef, Bert, et al. "Personal, Indoor, and Outdoor Exposures to PM2.5 and Its Components for Groups of Cardiovascular Patients in Amsterdam and Helsinki." Research Report (Health Effects Institute), 2005, pp. 1-70; discussion 71-9.
Brunekreef B, Janssen NA, de Hartog JJ, et al. Personal, indoor, and outdoor exposures to PM2.5 and its components for groups of cardiovascular patients in Amsterdam and Helsinki. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2005.
Brunekreef, B., Janssen, N. A., de Hartog, J. J., Oldenwening, M., Meliefste, K., Hoek, G., Lanki, T., Timonen, K. L., Vallius, M., Pekkanen, J., & Van Grieken, R. (2005). Personal, indoor, and outdoor exposures to PM2.5 and its components for groups of cardiovascular patients in Amsterdam and Helsinki. Research Report (Health Effects Institute), (127), 1-70; discussion 71-9.
Brunekreef B, et al. Personal, Indoor, and Outdoor Exposures to PM2.5 and Its Components for Groups of Cardiovascular Patients in Amsterdam and Helsinki. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2005;(127)1-70; discussion 71-9. PubMed PMID: 15916017.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Personal, indoor, and outdoor exposures to PM2.5 and its components for groups of cardiovascular patients in Amsterdam and Helsinki. AU - Brunekreef,Bert, AU - Janssen,Nicole A H, AU - de Hartog,Jeroen J, AU - Oldenwening,Marieke, AU - Meliefste,Kees, AU - Hoek,Gerard, AU - Lanki,Timo, AU - Timonen,Kirsi L, AU - Vallius,Marko, AU - Pekkanen,Juha, AU - Van Grieken,Rene, PY - 2005/5/27/pubmed PY - 2005/7/22/medline PY - 2005/5/27/entrez SP - 1-70; discussion 71-9 JF - Research report (Health Effects Institute) JO - Res Rep Health Eff Inst IS - 127 N2 - The aim of the investigation was to assess the relations between pairs of personal, indoor, and outdoor levels of fine particles and their components with respect to effects for older subjects with cardiovascular disease. In the framework of a study funded by the European Union (Exposure and Risk Assessment for Fine and Ultrafine Particles in Ambient Air; referred to as ULTRA)*, panel studies were conducted in Amsterdam (The Netherlands) and Helsinki (Finland). Concentrations of outdoor particulate matter 2.5 pm or smaller in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) were measured at a fixed site in each location. With HEI funding, each subject's personal and indoor PM2.5 exposure was measured every other week for 6 months during the 24-hour period preceding intensive health measurements. Particle reflectance was measured as a marker for diesel exhaust. Elemental content of more than 50% of the personal and indoor samples and all corresponding outdoor samples was measured using x-ray fluorescence (XRF). Ion content (sulfate, nitrate) was measured using chromatography. For Amsterdam, 337 personal and 409 indoor measurements were collected from 37 subjects; for Helsinki, 336 personal and 503 indoor measurements were collected from 47 subjects. Median personal, indoor, and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were 13.6, 13.6, and 16.5 microg/m3 in Amsterdam and 9.2, 9.2, and 11.1 microg/m3 in Helsinki. In both cities, personal and indoor PM2.5 concentrations were lower than and highly correlated with outdoor concentrations (median correlation coefficient [R] 0.7-0.8). For most elements, personal and indoor concentrations were also highly correlated with outdoor concentrations. The highest correlations (median R > 0.9) were found for sulfur (S), sulfate, and particle reflectance (reported as the absorption coefficient). Reflectance was a useful proxy for elemental carbon (EC), but site-specific calibration with EC data is necessary. The findings of this study support using fixed-site measurements as a measure of exposure to PM in time-series studies linking the day-to-day variations in PM to the day-to-day variations in health endpoints, especially for components of PM that are generally associated with fine particles and have few indoor sources. SN - 1041-5505 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15916017/Personal_indoor_and_outdoor_exposures_to_PM2_5_and_its_components_for_groups_of_cardiovascular_patients_in_Amsterdam_and_Helsinki_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/indoorairpollution.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -