IL-1 alpha stimulates the formation of osteoclast-like cells by increasing M-CSF and PGE2 production and decreasing OPG production by osteoblasts.Life Sci. 2005 Jun 24; 77(6):615-26.LS
Interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) is one of the most potent bone-resorbing factors involved in the bone loss that is associated with inflammation. We examined the effect of the inflammatory mediator IL-1alpha on the expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in rat osteoblasts, and the indirect effect of IL-1alpha on the formation of osteoclast-like cells. Osteoblasts were cultured in alpha-minimum essential medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum with or without 100 units/ml of IL-1alpha for up to 14 days. The gene and protein expression of M-CSF and OPG were estimated by determining mRNA levels using the real-time polymerase chain reaction and protein levels using Western blot analysis. PGE2 expression was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The formation of osteoclast-like cells was estimated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining of osteoclast precursors in culture with conditioned medium from IL-1alpha-treated osteoblasts and the soluble receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). M-CSF and PGE2 expression in osteoblasts increased markedly in cells cultured with IL-1alpha, whereas OPG expression decreased. The conditioned medium containing M-CSF and PGE2 produced by IL-1alpha-treated osteoblasts and soluble RANKL increased the TRAP staining of osteoclast precursors. These results suggest that IL-1alpha stimulated the formation of osteoclast-like cells via an increase in M-CSF and PGE2 production, and a decrease in OPG production by osteoblasts.