Non-hematopoietic bone marrow stem cells: molecular control of expansion and differentiation.Exp Cell Res. 2005 Jun 10; 306(2):330-5.EC
The first non-hematopoietic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were discovered by Friedenstein in 1976, who described clonal, plastic adherent cells from bone marrow capable of differentiating into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. More recently, investigators have now demonstrated that multi-potent MSCs can be recovered from a variety of other adult tissues and differentiate into numerous tissue lineages including myoblasts, hepatocytes and possibly even neural tissue. Because MSCs are multipotent and easily expanded in culture, there has been much interest in their clinical potential for tissue repair and gene therapy and as a result, numerous studies have been carried out demonstrating the migration and multi-organ engraftment potential of MSCs in animal models and in human clinical trials. This review describes the recent advances in the understanding of MSC biology.