Vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma: results from the Netherlands cohort study.Int J Cancer 2005; 117(4):648-54IJ
Vegetable and fruit consumption is generally inversely associated with various cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer (NLCS) consists of 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69 years, who filled out a self-administered questionnaire that includes 150-item food-frequency questions and additional questions on lifestyle factors, at baseline in 1986. A case-cohort approach was used. After 9.3 years of follow-up, 275 microscopically confirmed incident cases were identified. Subjects with incomplete or inconsistent dietary data were excluded, leaving 260 RCC cases for analyses on fruit consumption and 249 RCC cases for analyses on vegetable consumption. Incidence rate ratios (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. RRs for exposure variables are expressed per increment of 25 g/day and are adjusted for age, sex, smoking, body mass index and history of hypertension at baseline. The RRs for vegetable consumption were further adjusted for fruit consumption and vice versa. Total vegetable and fruit consumption (RR: 1.00; 95% CI 0.97-1.02), vegetable (RR: 1.00, 95% CI 0.96-1.06) and fruit consumption (RR: 1.00; 95% CI 0.97-1.03) were not associated with RCC risk. Also, no association existed for botanical subgroups of vegetables and fruit. For 30 individual vegetables and fruits, we observed one that significantly increased RR (mandarin consumption, RR: 1.76; 95% CI 1.28-2.42), which must be regarded cautiously because of multiple testing. These results suggest the absence of an association between vegetable and/or fruit consumption and RCC risk.