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Depression and smoking amongst older general practice patients.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Cerebrovascular disease is associated with depression in later life. Smoking is a known risk factor for cerebrovascular disease and, as a consequence, may contribute to the development of depression in the elderly. This study was designed to investigate the association between smoking and depression in people aged 60 years or over.

METHODS

Cross-sectional survey of older adults attending a representative sample of general practitioners in Western Australia. Subjects were divided into four groups according to their smoking status: never smoked, ex-light smoker, ex-heavy smoker (>20 cigarettes/day), and current smoker. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). CES-D score of 22 or more was used to define the presence of clinically significant depression.

RESULTS

1030 completed the assessment. Their age ranged from 60 to 101 years and 57.2% were female. The mean+/-S.D. CES-D score was 10.5+/-8.1, 10.6+/-8.3, 12.5+/-10.2 and 13.1+/-11.0 for never smokers, ex-light smokers, ex-heavy smokers and current smokers respectively (p=0.037), with 7.7%, 8.5%, 13.8% and 17.2% having CES-D > or =22 (p=0.016). Current or past heavy smoking was associated with increased risk of clinically significant depression when compared to never or past light smoking (OR=1.58, 95%CI=1.01-2.48-after adjustments were made for age, gender, place of birth, social isolation, self-perceived health and harmful or hazardous drinking).

CONCLUSION

Past heavy smoking and current smoking are associated with increased frequency and severity of depression. Smoking cessation may play an important role in reducing the burden of depression in later life, but the success of smoking cessation interventions in decreasing the incidence and prevalence of depression might be predicated on the timing of the intervention; i.e., before the psychobiological changes associated with smoking become irreversible.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences (M573), University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Perth, WA 6009, Australia. osvalm@cyllene.uwa.edu.au

    Source

    Journal of affective disorders 86:2-3 2005 Jun pg 317-21

    MeSH

    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Australia
    Comorbidity
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Depressive Disorder
    Family Practice
    Female
    Geriatric Assessment
    Humans
    Logistic Models
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
    Sex Factors
    Smoking
    Smoking Cessation

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15935254

    Citation

    Almeida, Osvaldo P., and Jon J. Pfaff. "Depression and Smoking Amongst Older General Practice Patients." Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 86, no. 2-3, 2005, pp. 317-21.
    Almeida OP, Pfaff JJ. Depression and smoking amongst older general practice patients. J Affect Disord. 2005;86(2-3):317-21.
    Almeida, O. P., & Pfaff, J. J. (2005). Depression and smoking amongst older general practice patients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 86(2-3), pp. 317-21.
    Almeida OP, Pfaff JJ. Depression and Smoking Amongst Older General Practice Patients. J Affect Disord. 2005;86(2-3):317-21. PubMed PMID: 15935254.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Depression and smoking amongst older general practice patients. AU - Almeida,Osvaldo P, AU - Pfaff,Jon J, PY - 2004/09/28/received PY - 2005/02/21/revised PY - 2005/02/21/accepted PY - 2005/6/7/pubmed PY - 2005/9/24/medline PY - 2005/6/7/entrez SP - 317 EP - 21 JF - Journal of affective disorders JO - J Affect Disord VL - 86 IS - 2-3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular disease is associated with depression in later life. Smoking is a known risk factor for cerebrovascular disease and, as a consequence, may contribute to the development of depression in the elderly. This study was designed to investigate the association between smoking and depression in people aged 60 years or over. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of older adults attending a representative sample of general practitioners in Western Australia. Subjects were divided into four groups according to their smoking status: never smoked, ex-light smoker, ex-heavy smoker (>20 cigarettes/day), and current smoker. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). CES-D score of 22 or more was used to define the presence of clinically significant depression. RESULTS: 1030 completed the assessment. Their age ranged from 60 to 101 years and 57.2% were female. The mean+/-S.D. CES-D score was 10.5+/-8.1, 10.6+/-8.3, 12.5+/-10.2 and 13.1+/-11.0 for never smokers, ex-light smokers, ex-heavy smokers and current smokers respectively (p=0.037), with 7.7%, 8.5%, 13.8% and 17.2% having CES-D > or =22 (p=0.016). Current or past heavy smoking was associated with increased risk of clinically significant depression when compared to never or past light smoking (OR=1.58, 95%CI=1.01-2.48-after adjustments were made for age, gender, place of birth, social isolation, self-perceived health and harmful or hazardous drinking). CONCLUSION: Past heavy smoking and current smoking are associated with increased frequency and severity of depression. Smoking cessation may play an important role in reducing the burden of depression in later life, but the success of smoking cessation interventions in decreasing the incidence and prevalence of depression might be predicated on the timing of the intervention; i.e., before the psychobiological changes associated with smoking become irreversible. SN - 0165-0327 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15935254/Depression_and_smoking_amongst_older_general_practice_patients_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0165-0327(05)00069-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -