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Milk, dairy fat, dietary calcium, and weight gain: a longitudinal study of adolescents.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Milk is promoted as a healthy beverage for children, but some researchers believe that estrone and whey protein in dairy products may cause weight gain. Others claim that dairy calcium promotes weight loss.

OBJECTIVE

To assess the associations between milk, calcium from foods and beverages, dairy fat, and weight change over time.Design, Subjects, and Outcome Measure We followed a cohort of 12 829 US children, aged 9 to 14 years in 1996, who returned questionnaires by mail through 1999. Children annually reported their height and weight and completed food frequency questionnaires regarding typical past-year intakes. We estimated associations between annual change in body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and our dietary factors, adjusted for adolescent growth and development, race, physical activity, inactivity, and (in some models) total energy intake.

RESULTS

Children who drank more than 3 servings a day of milk gained more in BMI than those who drank smaller amounts (boys: beta +/- SE, 0.076 +/- 0.038 [P = .04] more than those who drank 1 to 2 glasses a day; girls: beta +/- SE, 0.093 +/- 0.034 [P = .007] more than those who drank 0 to 0.5 glass a day). For boys, milk intake was associated with small BMI increases during the year (beta +/- SE, 0.019 +/- 0.009 per serving a day; P = .03); results were similar for girls (beta +/- SE, 0.015 +/- 0.007 per serving a day; P = .04). Quantities of 1% milk (boys) and skim milk (girls) were significantly associated with BMI gain, as was total dietary calcium intake. Multivariate analyses of milk, dairy fat, calcium, and total energy intake suggested that energy was the most important predictor of weight gain. Analyses of year-to-year changes in milk, calcium, dairy fat, and total energy intakes provided generally similar conclusions; an increase in energy intake from the prior year predicted BMI gain in boys (P = .003) and girls (P = .03).

CONCLUSIONS

Children who drank the most milk gained more weight, but the added calories appeared responsible. Contrary to our hypotheses, dietary calcium and skim and 1% milk were associated with weight gain, but dairy fat was not. Drinking large amounts of milk may provide excess energy to some children.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA. catherine.berkey@channing.harvard.edu

    , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Body Mass Index
    Calcium, Dietary
    Child
    Cohort Studies
    Diet Records
    Dietary Fats
    Energy Intake
    Female
    Humans
    Longitudinal Studies
    Male
    Milk, Human
    Multivariate Analysis
    Sex Factors
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    United States
    Weight Gain

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15939853

    Citation

    Berkey, Catherine S., et al. "Milk, Dairy Fat, Dietary Calcium, and Weight Gain: a Longitudinal Study of Adolescents." Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, vol. 159, no. 6, 2005, pp. 543-50.
    Berkey CS, Rockett HR, Willett WC, et al. Milk, dairy fat, dietary calcium, and weight gain: a longitudinal study of adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159(6):543-50.
    Berkey, C. S., Rockett, H. R., Willett, W. C., & Colditz, G. A. (2005). Milk, dairy fat, dietary calcium, and weight gain: a longitudinal study of adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 159(6), pp. 543-50.
    Berkey CS, et al. Milk, Dairy Fat, Dietary Calcium, and Weight Gain: a Longitudinal Study of Adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159(6):543-50. PubMed PMID: 15939853.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Milk, dairy fat, dietary calcium, and weight gain: a longitudinal study of adolescents. AU - Berkey,Catherine S, AU - Rockett,Helaine R H, AU - Willett,Walter C, AU - Colditz,Graham A, PY - 2005/6/9/pubmed PY - 2005/6/24/medline PY - 2005/6/9/entrez SP - 543 EP - 50 JF - Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine JO - Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med VL - 159 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Milk is promoted as a healthy beverage for children, but some researchers believe that estrone and whey protein in dairy products may cause weight gain. Others claim that dairy calcium promotes weight loss. OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between milk, calcium from foods and beverages, dairy fat, and weight change over time.Design, Subjects, and Outcome Measure We followed a cohort of 12 829 US children, aged 9 to 14 years in 1996, who returned questionnaires by mail through 1999. Children annually reported their height and weight and completed food frequency questionnaires regarding typical past-year intakes. We estimated associations between annual change in body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and our dietary factors, adjusted for adolescent growth and development, race, physical activity, inactivity, and (in some models) total energy intake. RESULTS: Children who drank more than 3 servings a day of milk gained more in BMI than those who drank smaller amounts (boys: beta +/- SE, 0.076 +/- 0.038 [P = .04] more than those who drank 1 to 2 glasses a day; girls: beta +/- SE, 0.093 +/- 0.034 [P = .007] more than those who drank 0 to 0.5 glass a day). For boys, milk intake was associated with small BMI increases during the year (beta +/- SE, 0.019 +/- 0.009 per serving a day; P = .03); results were similar for girls (beta +/- SE, 0.015 +/- 0.007 per serving a day; P = .04). Quantities of 1% milk (boys) and skim milk (girls) were significantly associated with BMI gain, as was total dietary calcium intake. Multivariate analyses of milk, dairy fat, calcium, and total energy intake suggested that energy was the most important predictor of weight gain. Analyses of year-to-year changes in milk, calcium, dairy fat, and total energy intakes provided generally similar conclusions; an increase in energy intake from the prior year predicted BMI gain in boys (P = .003) and girls (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Children who drank the most milk gained more weight, but the added calories appeared responsible. Contrary to our hypotheses, dietary calcium and skim and 1% milk were associated with weight gain, but dairy fat was not. Drinking large amounts of milk may provide excess energy to some children. SN - 1072-4710 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15939853/Milk_dairy_fat_dietary_calcium_and_weight_gain:_a_longitudinal_study_of_adolescents_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/10.1001/archpedi.159.6.543 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -