Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom is effective in the neutralization of South American viperidae venoms in a murine model.
Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Jun; 45(6):595-602.AE

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVE

Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) (CroFab; FabAV) is used in the treatment of symptomatic crotaline envenomations in North America. Unlike Antivenin (Crotalidae) Polyvalent, which is approved for treatment of crotaline envenomation in North and South America, FabAV is manufactured using only venoms from crotaline snakes native to the United States. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of FabAV in the neutralization of venom from 2 South American crotaline snakes: Crotalus durissus terrificus (tropical rattlesnake) and Bothrops atrox (fer-de-lance).

METHODS

A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled murine model of intraperitoneal venom injection was used. Venom potency was determined in preliminary median lethal dose (LD 50) dosing studies. Study animals were then divided into 7 groups: (1) C durissus terrificus venom (Sigma-Aldrich Co.)+FabAV, (2) C durissus terrificus venom (Sigma-Aldrich Co.)+0.9% normal saline solution, (3) C durissus terrificus venom (Biotoxins Inc.)+FabAV, (4) C durissus terrificus venom (Biotoxins Inc.)+normal saline solution, (5) B atrox venom+FabAV, (6) B atrox venom+normal saline solution, and (7) FabAV+normal saline solution. Twice the estimated LD 50 was the chosen venom dose, and the amount of FabAV injected was 10 times the amount needed for venom neutralization. Statistical analysis included Fisher's exact test and log-rank testing to compare survival rates and times.

RESULTS

The venom LD 50 was found in preliminary studies to be 0.9 mg/kg and 1.35 mg/kg for the C durissus terrificus venom obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Co. and Biotoxins Inc., respectively. The LD 50 for B atrox venom was 5.0 mg/kg. All animals receiving venom only and saline solution died. Animals receiving FabAV together with either venom survived to the end of the 24-hour observation period (P <.001). Comparison of survival times between groups demonstrated a significant difference in time to death between venom-only control groups and the FabAV+venom groups (P <.001). All animals in the FabAV+normal saline solution group survived to the conclusion of the study.

CONCLUSION

FabAV, when premixed with venom, decreases lethality in a murine model of intraperitoneal venom injection of the South American pit vipers, C durissus terrificus and B atrox .

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Emergency Medicine, Palmetto Richland Memorial Hospital, Palmetto Poison Center, College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. whrichardson@sc.rr.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15940091

Citation

Richardson, William H., et al. "Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (ovine) Antivenom Is Effective in the Neutralization of South American Viperidae Venoms in a Murine Model." Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 45, no. 6, 2005, pp. 595-602.
Richardson WH, Tanen DA, Tong TC, et al. Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom is effective in the neutralization of South American viperidae venoms in a murine model. Ann Emerg Med. 2005;45(6):595-602.
Richardson, W. H., Tanen, D. A., Tong, T. C., Betten, D. P., Carstairs, S. D., Williams, S. R., Cantrell, F. L., & Clark, R. F. (2005). Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom is effective in the neutralization of South American viperidae venoms in a murine model. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 45(6), 595-602.
Richardson WH, et al. Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (ovine) Antivenom Is Effective in the Neutralization of South American Viperidae Venoms in a Murine Model. Ann Emerg Med. 2005;45(6):595-602. PubMed PMID: 15940091.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom is effective in the neutralization of South American viperidae venoms in a murine model. AU - Richardson,William H,3rd AU - Tanen,David A, AU - Tong,Tri C, AU - Betten,David P, AU - Carstairs,Shaun D, AU - Williams,Saralyn R, AU - Cantrell,Frank L, AU - Clark,Richard F, PY - 2005/6/9/pubmed PY - 2006/5/19/medline PY - 2005/6/9/entrez SP - 595 EP - 602 JF - Annals of emergency medicine JO - Ann Emerg Med VL - 45 IS - 6 N2 - STUDY OBJECTIVE: Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) (CroFab; FabAV) is used in the treatment of symptomatic crotaline envenomations in North America. Unlike Antivenin (Crotalidae) Polyvalent, which is approved for treatment of crotaline envenomation in North and South America, FabAV is manufactured using only venoms from crotaline snakes native to the United States. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of FabAV in the neutralization of venom from 2 South American crotaline snakes: Crotalus durissus terrificus (tropical rattlesnake) and Bothrops atrox (fer-de-lance). METHODS: A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled murine model of intraperitoneal venom injection was used. Venom potency was determined in preliminary median lethal dose (LD 50) dosing studies. Study animals were then divided into 7 groups: (1) C durissus terrificus venom (Sigma-Aldrich Co.)+FabAV, (2) C durissus terrificus venom (Sigma-Aldrich Co.)+0.9% normal saline solution, (3) C durissus terrificus venom (Biotoxins Inc.)+FabAV, (4) C durissus terrificus venom (Biotoxins Inc.)+normal saline solution, (5) B atrox venom+FabAV, (6) B atrox venom+normal saline solution, and (7) FabAV+normal saline solution. Twice the estimated LD 50 was the chosen venom dose, and the amount of FabAV injected was 10 times the amount needed for venom neutralization. Statistical analysis included Fisher's exact test and log-rank testing to compare survival rates and times. RESULTS: The venom LD 50 was found in preliminary studies to be 0.9 mg/kg and 1.35 mg/kg for the C durissus terrificus venom obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Co. and Biotoxins Inc., respectively. The LD 50 for B atrox venom was 5.0 mg/kg. All animals receiving venom only and saline solution died. Animals receiving FabAV together with either venom survived to the end of the 24-hour observation period (P <.001). Comparison of survival times between groups demonstrated a significant difference in time to death between venom-only control groups and the FabAV+venom groups (P <.001). All animals in the FabAV+normal saline solution group survived to the conclusion of the study. CONCLUSION: FabAV, when premixed with venom, decreases lethality in a murine model of intraperitoneal venom injection of the South American pit vipers, C durissus terrificus and B atrox . SN - 1097-6760 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15940091/Crotalidae_polyvalent_immune_Fab__ovine__antivenom_is_effective_in_the_neutralization_of_South_American_viperidae_venoms_in_a_murine_model_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -