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Smoking and the risk of fracture in older men.
J Bone Miner Res. 2005 Jul; 20(7):1208-15.JB

Abstract

The role of smoking on fracture risk in older men was studied within a longitudinal population-based cohort study. Using time-dependent exposure information and analysis, smoking was detected to be a stronger, dose-dependent and a more long lasting risk factor for fracture than has previously been estimated.

INTRODUCTION

Although several studies have indicated a negative influence of smoking on fracture risk in women, there are few studies in men. No study in either sex has considered that smoking exposure may vary during follow-up in a cohort study. There is a need for a prospective study with repeated measures to analyze smoking exposure and fracture risk in men.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A total of 2322 men, 49-51 years of age, were enrolled in a longitudinal, population-based cohort study. Smoking status and other lifestyle habits were established at baseline and additionally at 60, 70, and 77 years of age. One or more fractures were documented in 272 men during 30 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the rate ratio (RR) of fracture according to time-dependent smoking habits and covariates.

RESULTS

The overall adjusted fracture risk was increased in current (RR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.86-3.95) and former smokers (RR, 1.66, 95% CI; 1.18-2.34), and persistent until 30 years after cessation. Among current smokers, the adjusted risk of any fracture increased by 30% (95% CI, 6-58%) for every 5 g of tobacco smoked each day. Smoking duration did not substantially influence fracture risk in either current or former smokers. One-half (52%; 95% CI, 35-65%) of all fractures were attributable to current smoking.

CONCLUSIONS

Tobacco smoking seems to be a long-lasting major risk factor for fracture in older men, and the risks depends both on recency of smoking and on the daily amount of tobacco smoked, rather than smoking duration.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Section of Orthopedics, Department of Surgical Sciences, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15940374

Citation

Olofsson, Helena, et al. "Smoking and the Risk of Fracture in Older Men." Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 20, no. 7, 2005, pp. 1208-15.
Olofsson H, Byberg L, Mohsen R, et al. Smoking and the risk of fracture in older men. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20(7):1208-15.
Olofsson, H., Byberg, L., Mohsen, R., Melhus, H., Lithell, H., & Michaëlsson, K. (2005). Smoking and the risk of fracture in older men. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 20(7), 1208-15.
Olofsson H, et al. Smoking and the Risk of Fracture in Older Men. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20(7):1208-15. PubMed PMID: 15940374.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Smoking and the risk of fracture in older men. AU - Olofsson,Helena, AU - Byberg,Liisa, AU - Mohsen,Rawya, AU - Melhus,Hakan, AU - Lithell,Hans, AU - Michaëlsson,Karl, Y1 - 2005/02/14/ PY - 2004/09/27/received PY - 2005/01/18/revised PY - 2005/02/08/accepted PY - 2005/6/9/pubmed PY - 2005/9/21/medline PY - 2005/6/9/entrez SP - 1208 EP - 15 JF - Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research JO - J Bone Miner Res VL - 20 IS - 7 N2 - UNLABELLED: The role of smoking on fracture risk in older men was studied within a longitudinal population-based cohort study. Using time-dependent exposure information and analysis, smoking was detected to be a stronger, dose-dependent and a more long lasting risk factor for fracture than has previously been estimated. INTRODUCTION: Although several studies have indicated a negative influence of smoking on fracture risk in women, there are few studies in men. No study in either sex has considered that smoking exposure may vary during follow-up in a cohort study. There is a need for a prospective study with repeated measures to analyze smoking exposure and fracture risk in men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2322 men, 49-51 years of age, were enrolled in a longitudinal, population-based cohort study. Smoking status and other lifestyle habits were established at baseline and additionally at 60, 70, and 77 years of age. One or more fractures were documented in 272 men during 30 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the rate ratio (RR) of fracture according to time-dependent smoking habits and covariates. RESULTS: The overall adjusted fracture risk was increased in current (RR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.86-3.95) and former smokers (RR, 1.66, 95% CI; 1.18-2.34), and persistent until 30 years after cessation. Among current smokers, the adjusted risk of any fracture increased by 30% (95% CI, 6-58%) for every 5 g of tobacco smoked each day. Smoking duration did not substantially influence fracture risk in either current or former smokers. One-half (52%; 95% CI, 35-65%) of all fractures were attributable to current smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking seems to be a long-lasting major risk factor for fracture in older men, and the risks depends both on recency of smoking and on the daily amount of tobacco smoked, rather than smoking duration. SN - 0884-0431 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15940374/Smoking_and_the_risk_of_fracture_in_older_men_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1359/JBMR.050208 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -