Antimicrobial susceptibility variation of 50 anaerobic periopathogens in aggressive periodontitis: an interindividual variability study.Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2005 Aug; 20(4):244-52.OM
The frequent use of antibiotics in developed countries has led to the emergence of widespread bacterial resistance. In this study, the interindividual variability of the antibiotic susceptibility of 50 putative microorganisms in aggressive periodontitis patients has been evaluated by means of VC (variation coefficient).
MATERIAL AND METHODS
A total of 60 microbial samples were collected from 20 adult patients diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis (2-4 samples by patient). Bacterial strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Peptostreptococcus micros were isolated according to Slots' rapid identification method. The susceptibilities to 10 antibiotics were studied: penicillin G (PEN), ampicillin (AMP), amoxicillin (AMX), amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMC), tetracycline (TET), doxycycline (DOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), erythromycin (ERY), spiramycin (SPI) and clindamycin (CLIN), using the Disk Diffusion Susceptibility test (DDS test: Kirby-Bauer's modified method for anaerobic bacteria). The broth microdilution Minimum Inhibitory Concentration test was carried out as a control test.
Among the 50 identified bacteria, 15 were P. gingivalis, 12 P. intermedia, 8 T. forsythia, 9 F. nucleatum, and 6 P. micros. The results of the DDS test show that penicillins (especially AMC, AMP, and AMX), cyclines (especially DOX) and CLIN are highly effective against the 50 anaerobic studied bacteria. CIP and ERY have the lowest efficacy against those bacteria. CIP shows a very variable activity according to anaerobic bacteria species, being particularly inactive against P. gingivalis and very efficient against T. forsythia and P. micros. SPI is also highly efficient but not against P. micros.
The interindividual susceptibility of principal periodontal pathogens to antibiotics is not homogeneous and seems to vary according to bacterial species and antimicrobial molecules. This variability seems to be greater with older molecules (PEN, TET, ERY) than with more recent ones, which indicates more stable results (AMC, AMX, AMP, and DOX). P. intermedia appeared to be the bacteria most resistant to penicillins and showed the highest coefficient variation. Together with scaling and root planing, the combination of two antibiotics would therefore seem to be recommended in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis, particularly in the presence of P. intermedia.