Aberrant accentuation of neurofibrillary degeneration in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease with amyloid precursor protein 717 and presenilin-1 gene mutations.J Neurol Sci. 2005 Jul 15; 234(1-2):55-65.JN
This study reports correlation of the hippocampal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) density with beta-amyloid (Abeta) precursor protein (APP) 717 mutation, presenilin (PS)-1 mutation and apolipoprotein E (Apo-E) e4 alleles (E4), being graded as 3 forms (no-E4, one-E4 and two-E4) in autopsied brains from patients with familial and non-familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied the density of NFT-free neurons, intracellular NFT (I-NFT), extracellular NFT (E-NFT) and total NFT (I-NFT plus E-NFT) in the six hippocampal subdivisions: cornu ammonis (CA) 1-CA4, subiculum and entorhinal cortex. The APP mutation cases showed significantly higher total NFT density in the CA1-CA2 region, and the PS-1 mutation cases also showed higher density of total NFT in the CA1-CA3 than non-familial cases. Moreover, high densities of the E-NFT contributed to these high total NFT densities. Non-familial AD cases showed a stereotypical NFT distribution with entorhinal accentuation in the hippocampus irrespective of E4 frequency. Thus, APP and PS-1 mutations predominantly affect the CA regions with profound neurodegeneration, which contributes early and severe clinical features of familial AD.