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Variability in muscle size and strength gain after unilateral resistance training.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005 Jun; 37(6):964-72.MS

Abstract

PURPOSE

This study assessed variability in muscle size and strength changes in a large cohort of men and women after a unilateral resistance training program in the elbow flexors. A secondary purpose was to assess sex differences in size and strength changes after training.

METHODS

Five hundred eighty-five subjects (342 women, 243 men) were tested at one of eight study centers. Isometric (MVC) and dynamic strength (one-repetition maximum (1RM)) of the elbow flexor muscles of each arm and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the biceps brachii (to determine cross-sectional area (CSA)) were assessed before and after 12 wk of progressive dynamic resistance training of the nondominant arm.

RESULTS

Size changes ranged from -2 to +59% (-0.4 to +13.6 cm), 1RM strength gains ranged from 0 to +250% (0 to +10.2 kg), and MVC changes ranged from -32 to +149% (-15.9 to +52.6 kg). Coefficients of variation were 0.48 and 0.51 for changes in CSA (P = 0.44), 1.07 and 0.89 for changes in MVC (P < 0.01), and 0.55 and 0.59 for changes in CSA (P < 0.01) in men and women, respectively. Men experienced 2.5% greater gains for CSA (P < 0.01) compared with women. Despite greater absolute gains in men, relative increases in strength measures were greater in women versus men (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION

Men and women exhibit wide ranges of response to resistance training, with some subjects showing little to no gain, and others showing profound changes, increasing size by over 10 cm and doubling their strength. Men had only a slight advantage in relative size gains compared with women, whereas women outpaced men considerably in relative gains in strength.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Exercise Science, Totman Building, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15947721

Citation

Hubal, Monica J., et al. "Variability in Muscle Size and Strength Gain After Unilateral Resistance Training." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 37, no. 6, 2005, pp. 964-72.
Hubal MJ, Gordish-Dressman H, Thompson PD, et al. Variability in muscle size and strength gain after unilateral resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(6):964-72.
Hubal, M. J., Gordish-Dressman, H., Thompson, P. D., Price, T. B., Hoffman, E. P., Angelopoulos, T. J., Gordon, P. M., Moyna, N. M., Pescatello, L. S., Visich, P. S., Zoeller, R. F., Seip, R. L., & Clarkson, P. M. (2005). Variability in muscle size and strength gain after unilateral resistance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(6), 964-72.
Hubal MJ, et al. Variability in Muscle Size and Strength Gain After Unilateral Resistance Training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(6):964-72. PubMed PMID: 15947721.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Variability in muscle size and strength gain after unilateral resistance training. AU - Hubal,Monica J, AU - Gordish-Dressman,Heather, AU - Thompson,Paul D, AU - Price,Thomas B, AU - Hoffman,Eric P, AU - Angelopoulos,Theodore J, AU - Gordon,Paul M, AU - Moyna,Niall M, AU - Pescatello,Linda S, AU - Visich,Paul S, AU - Zoeller,Robert F, AU - Seip,Richard L, AU - Clarkson,Priscilla M, PY - 2005/6/11/pubmed PY - 2005/9/10/medline PY - 2005/6/11/entrez SP - 964 EP - 72 JF - Medicine and science in sports and exercise JO - Med Sci Sports Exerc VL - 37 IS - 6 N2 - PURPOSE: This study assessed variability in muscle size and strength changes in a large cohort of men and women after a unilateral resistance training program in the elbow flexors. A secondary purpose was to assess sex differences in size and strength changes after training. METHODS: Five hundred eighty-five subjects (342 women, 243 men) were tested at one of eight study centers. Isometric (MVC) and dynamic strength (one-repetition maximum (1RM)) of the elbow flexor muscles of each arm and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the biceps brachii (to determine cross-sectional area (CSA)) were assessed before and after 12 wk of progressive dynamic resistance training of the nondominant arm. RESULTS: Size changes ranged from -2 to +59% (-0.4 to +13.6 cm), 1RM strength gains ranged from 0 to +250% (0 to +10.2 kg), and MVC changes ranged from -32 to +149% (-15.9 to +52.6 kg). Coefficients of variation were 0.48 and 0.51 for changes in CSA (P = 0.44), 1.07 and 0.89 for changes in MVC (P < 0.01), and 0.55 and 0.59 for changes in CSA (P < 0.01) in men and women, respectively. Men experienced 2.5% greater gains for CSA (P < 0.01) compared with women. Despite greater absolute gains in men, relative increases in strength measures were greater in women versus men (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Men and women exhibit wide ranges of response to resistance training, with some subjects showing little to no gain, and others showing profound changes, increasing size by over 10 cm and doubling their strength. Men had only a slight advantage in relative size gains compared with women, whereas women outpaced men considerably in relative gains in strength. SN - 0195-9131 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15947721/Variability_in_muscle_size_and_strength_gain_after_unilateral_resistance_training_ L2 - https://Insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=15947721 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -