Urolithiasis in adults. Clinical and biochemical aspects.Saudi Med J 2005; 26(5):705-13SM
Urolithiasis is a multifactorial recurrent disease of world-wide distribution in rural, urban, industrial and non-industrial regions. Changes in urinary pH is a risk factor especially with hyperuricosuria, hypercalciuria or hyperoxaluria. With recurrence, hypercalcuria and higher urinary oxalate levels are more frequent. Hypercalciuria and hyperuricosuria showed correlation with family history of stones. The ionic relations between various stone forming salts in urine of patients are opposite to that in controls and are well represented in stone composition. Obesity is a risk factor in both genders. Over eating a diet rich in all nutrients was associated with hyperuricosuria while a diet high only in fat was associated with other urinary disturbances. High protein and fat intake are risk factors. High or low calcium diet was associated with urolithiasis and supplemental calcium is not a risk factor. Potassium and magnesium citrate are potent in inhibiting the growth of stone fragments after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Whether in patients or normal subjects, drinking hard water should be avoided; tap water or low calcium content water is preferable. Seasonal variations in temperature affected urinary volume, pH and relative saturation of uric acid. To prevent recurrence, patients should maintain high fluid intake achieving a urine volume of 2 liters per day.