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Urolithiasis in adults. Clinical and biochemical aspects.
Saudi Med J 2005; 26(5):705-13SM

Abstract

Urolithiasis is a multifactorial recurrent disease of world-wide distribution in rural, urban, industrial and non-industrial regions. Changes in urinary pH is a risk factor especially with hyperuricosuria, hypercalciuria or hyperoxaluria. With recurrence, hypercalcuria and higher urinary oxalate levels are more frequent. Hypercalciuria and hyperuricosuria showed correlation with family history of stones. The ionic relations between various stone forming salts in urine of patients are opposite to that in controls and are well represented in stone composition. Obesity is a risk factor in both genders. Over eating a diet rich in all nutrients was associated with hyperuricosuria while a diet high only in fat was associated with other urinary disturbances. High protein and fat intake are risk factors. High or low calcium diet was associated with urolithiasis and supplemental calcium is not a risk factor. Potassium and magnesium citrate are potent in inhibiting the growth of stone fragments after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Whether in patients or normal subjects, drinking hard water should be avoided; tap water or low calcium content water is preferable. Seasonal variations in temperature affected urinary volume, pH and relative saturation of uric acid. To prevent recurrence, patients should maintain high fluid intake achieving a urine volume of 2 liters per day.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, King Saud University, College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, PO Box 7805, Riyadh 11472, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. rabie@doctors.org.uk

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15951854

Citation

Abdel-Halim, Rabie E.. "Urolithiasis in Adults. Clinical and Biochemical Aspects." Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 26, no. 5, 2005, pp. 705-13.
Abdel-Halim RE. Urolithiasis in adults. Clinical and biochemical aspects. Saudi Med J. 2005;26(5):705-13.
Abdel-Halim, R. E. (2005). Urolithiasis in adults. Clinical and biochemical aspects. Saudi Medical Journal, 26(5), pp. 705-13.
Abdel-Halim RE. Urolithiasis in Adults. Clinical and Biochemical Aspects. Saudi Med J. 2005;26(5):705-13. PubMed PMID: 15951854.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Urolithiasis in adults. Clinical and biochemical aspects. A1 - Abdel-Halim,Rabie E, PY - 2005/6/14/pubmed PY - 2006/8/24/medline PY - 2005/6/14/entrez SP - 705 EP - 13 JF - Saudi medical journal JO - Saudi Med J VL - 26 IS - 5 N2 - Urolithiasis is a multifactorial recurrent disease of world-wide distribution in rural, urban, industrial and non-industrial regions. Changes in urinary pH is a risk factor especially with hyperuricosuria, hypercalciuria or hyperoxaluria. With recurrence, hypercalcuria and higher urinary oxalate levels are more frequent. Hypercalciuria and hyperuricosuria showed correlation with family history of stones. The ionic relations between various stone forming salts in urine of patients are opposite to that in controls and are well represented in stone composition. Obesity is a risk factor in both genders. Over eating a diet rich in all nutrients was associated with hyperuricosuria while a diet high only in fat was associated with other urinary disturbances. High protein and fat intake are risk factors. High or low calcium diet was associated with urolithiasis and supplemental calcium is not a risk factor. Potassium and magnesium citrate are potent in inhibiting the growth of stone fragments after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Whether in patients or normal subjects, drinking hard water should be avoided; tap water or low calcium content water is preferable. Seasonal variations in temperature affected urinary volume, pH and relative saturation of uric acid. To prevent recurrence, patients should maintain high fluid intake achieving a urine volume of 2 liters per day. SN - 0379-5284 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15951854/Urolithiasis_in_adults__Clinical_and_biochemical_aspects_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -