Characteristics of pupil responses during far-to-near and near-to-far accommodation.Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2005 Jul; 25(4):328-39.OP
The static and dynamic aspects of the pupil response associated with various amplitudes of far-to-near (accommodation) and near-to-far (disaccommodation) focusing responses were evaluated in this study. Dynamic refractive and pupillary changes were measured simultaneously during focusing responses to targets at real distances in 12 young (23-26 years) emmetropic subjects. The targets were presented alternately at far (6 m) and at one of six near positions from 1 D (1 m) to 6 D (16.7 cm) in 1 D steps. The latency, magnitude and peak velocity of pupil changes associated with accommodation and disaccommodation responses were calculated. The latency of refractive changes was shorter than that of pupillary changes. In general, the pupil constricted with accommodation and started dilating while accommodation was still maintained, resulting in reduced pupil dilation with disaccommodation. The magnitude of the pupil response increased linearly with that of accommodation and disaccommodation. The amount of pupil change per dioptre of refractive change was invariant with various amplitudes of refractive change. The peak velocity of pupil constriction was greater than that of pupil dilation for corresponding amplitudes. The pupil response is more closely associated with accommodation than with disaccommodation.