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Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Current evidence suggests that high red meat intake is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. High fish intake may be associated with a decreased risk, but the existing evidence is less convincing.

METHODS

We prospectively followed 478 040 men and women from 10 European countries who were free of cancer at enrollment between 1992 and 1998. Information on diet and lifestyle was collected at baseline. After a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 1329 incident colorectal cancers were documented. We examined the relationship between intakes of red and processed meat, poultry, and fish and colorectal cancer risk using a proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, energy (nonfat and fat sources), height, weight, work-related physical activity, smoking status, dietary fiber and folate, and alcohol consumption, stratified by center. A calibration substudy based on 36 994 subjects was used to correct hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for diet measurement errors. All statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS

Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with intake of red and processed meat (highest [>160 g/day] versus lowest [<20 g/day] intake, HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.88; Ptrend = .03) and inversely associated with intake of fish (>80 g/day versus <10 g/day, HR = 0.69, 95 % CI = 0.54 to 0.88; Ptrend<.001), but was not related to poultry intake. Correcting for measurement error strengthened the associations between colorectal cancer and red and processed meat intake (per 100-g increase HR = 1.25, 95% CI =1.09 to 1.41, Ptrend = .001 and HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.02, Ptrend = .001 before and after calibration, respectively) and for fish (per 100 g increase HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.87, Ptrend<.001 and HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.77, Ptrend = .003; before and after correction, respectively). In this study population, the absolute risk of development of colorectal cancer within 10 years for a study subject aged 50 years was 1.71% for the highest category of red and processed meat intake and 1.28% for the lowest category of intake and was 1.86% for subjects in the lowest category of fish intake and 1.28% for subjects in the highest category of fish intake.

CONCLUSIONS

Our data confirm that colorectal cancer risk is positively associated with high consumption of red and processed meat and support an inverse association with fish intake.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69 372 Lyon cedex 08, France.

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    Source

    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 97:12 2005 Jun 15 pg 906-16

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Animals
    Colorectal Neoplasms
    Dietary Fiber
    Europe
    Feeding Behavior
    Female
    Fishes
    Humans
    Life Style
    Male
    Meat
    Middle Aged
    Multivariate Analysis
    Odds Ratio
    Poultry
    Proportional Hazards Models
    Prospective Studies
    Risk Assessment
    Risk Factors
    Surveys and Questionnaires

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Multicenter Study
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15956652

    Citation

    Norat, Teresa, et al. "Meat, Fish, and Colorectal Cancer Risk: the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition." Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 97, no. 12, 2005, pp. 906-16.
    Norat T, Bingham S, Ferrari P, et al. Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97(12):906-16.
    Norat, T., Bingham, S., Ferrari, P., Slimani, N., Jenab, M., Mazuir, M., ... Riboli, E. (2005). Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 97(12), pp. 906-16.
    Norat T, et al. Meat, Fish, and Colorectal Cancer Risk: the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Jun 15;97(12):906-16. PubMed PMID: 15956652.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition. AU - Norat,Teresa, AU - Bingham,Sheila, AU - Ferrari,Pietro, AU - Slimani,Nadia, AU - Jenab,Mazda, AU - Mazuir,Mathieu, AU - Overvad,Kim, AU - Olsen,Anja, AU - Tjønneland,Anne, AU - Clavel,Francoise, AU - Boutron-Ruault,Marie-Christine, AU - Kesse,Emmanuelle, AU - Boeing,Heiner, AU - Bergmann,Manuela M, AU - Nieters,Alexandra, AU - Linseisen,Jakob, AU - Trichopoulou,Antonia, AU - Trichopoulos,Dimitrios, AU - Tountas,Yannis, AU - Berrino,Franco, AU - Palli,Domenico, AU - Panico,Salvatore, AU - Tumino,Rosario, AU - Vineis,Paolo, AU - Bueno-de-Mesquita,H Bas, AU - Peeters,Petra H M, AU - Engeset,Dagrun, AU - Lund,Eiliv, AU - Skeie,Guri, AU - Ardanaz,Eva, AU - González,Carlos, AU - Navarro,Carmen, AU - Quirós,J Ramón, AU - Sanchez,María-José, AU - Berglund,Göran, AU - Mattisson,Irene, AU - Hallmans,Göran, AU - Palmqvist,Richard, AU - Day,Nicholas E, AU - Khaw,Kay-Tee, AU - Key,Timothy J, AU - San Joaquin,Miguel, AU - Hémon,Bertrand, AU - Saracci,Rodolfo, AU - Kaaks,Rudolf, AU - Riboli,Elio, PY - 2005/6/16/pubmed PY - 2005/7/13/medline PY - 2005/6/16/entrez SP - 906 EP - 16 JF - Journal of the National Cancer Institute JO - J. Natl. Cancer Inst. VL - 97 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: Current evidence suggests that high red meat intake is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. High fish intake may be associated with a decreased risk, but the existing evidence is less convincing. METHODS: We prospectively followed 478 040 men and women from 10 European countries who were free of cancer at enrollment between 1992 and 1998. Information on diet and lifestyle was collected at baseline. After a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 1329 incident colorectal cancers were documented. We examined the relationship between intakes of red and processed meat, poultry, and fish and colorectal cancer risk using a proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, energy (nonfat and fat sources), height, weight, work-related physical activity, smoking status, dietary fiber and folate, and alcohol consumption, stratified by center. A calibration substudy based on 36 994 subjects was used to correct hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for diet measurement errors. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with intake of red and processed meat (highest [>160 g/day] versus lowest [<20 g/day] intake, HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.88; Ptrend = .03) and inversely associated with intake of fish (>80 g/day versus <10 g/day, HR = 0.69, 95 % CI = 0.54 to 0.88; Ptrend<.001), but was not related to poultry intake. Correcting for measurement error strengthened the associations between colorectal cancer and red and processed meat intake (per 100-g increase HR = 1.25, 95% CI =1.09 to 1.41, Ptrend = .001 and HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.02, Ptrend = .001 before and after calibration, respectively) and for fish (per 100 g increase HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.87, Ptrend<.001 and HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.77, Ptrend = .003; before and after correction, respectively). In this study population, the absolute risk of development of colorectal cancer within 10 years for a study subject aged 50 years was 1.71% for the highest category of red and processed meat intake and 1.28% for the lowest category of intake and was 1.86% for subjects in the lowest category of fish intake and 1.28% for subjects in the highest category of fish intake. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm that colorectal cancer risk is positively associated with high consumption of red and processed meat and support an inverse association with fish intake. SN - 1460-2105 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15956652/Meat_fish_and_colorectal_cancer_risk:_the_European_Prospective_Investigation_into_cancer_and_nutrition_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jnci/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jnci/dji164 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -