Comparative efficacy of oral extended-release hydromorphone and immediate-release hydromorphone in patients with persistent moderate to severe pain: two randomized controlled trials.J Pain Symptom Manage. 2005 Jun; 29(6):584-94.JP
Two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, crossover studies with identical designs evaluated the efficacy of oral extended-release hydromorphone (HHER) administered q24h compared with immediate-release hydromorphone (HHIR) dosed four times daily in patients with persistent moderate to severe pain. Patients titrated to a stable HHER dose were randomized to individualized doses of HHER or HHIR for 3 to 7 days before crossover to the second treatment. Primary efficacy end point was the mean of average pain intensity (API) scores, rated on a 0- to 10-point numeric scale, over the last 2 days before the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics day of each double-blind period. Difference between treatments (HHER - HHIR) in study 1 was 0.17 with a 90% confidence interval (CI) (-0.01, 0.34); in study 2, difference was 0.07 with a 90% CI (-0.12, 0.26). There were no significant differences between treatments in API scores or amount of rescue medication used at any time interval within the 24-hour dosing period. No reduction in pain control occurred in patients administered HHER at the end of the 24-hour dosing period. Most treatment-emergent adverse events were opioid-related. In these studies, HHER administered q24h and HHIR dosed four times daily provided comparable analgesia at an equivalent total daily dose.