Morbidity of laparoscopic extraperitoneal versus transperitoneal radical prostatectomy verus open retropubic radical prostatectomy.Eur Urol. 2005 Jul; 48(1):83-9; discussion 89.EU
Morbidity and postoperative pain after extraperitoneal (E-LRPE) and transperitoneal (T-LRPE) laparoscopic radical prostatectomy was compared to open extraperitoneal radical prostatectomy (O-RPE).
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Between January 2002 and October 2003, we evaluated 41 E-LRPE, 39 T-LRPE and 41 O-RPE prospectively. All operations were performed as standard procedures by the same group of surgeons and perioperative results and complications were evaluated. Pain management was performed with tramadol 50-100 mg on demand, and no other form of anaesthesia was given. Postoperative pain was assessed daily in all patients quantifying analgesic requirement and evaluation of Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). All patients had at least a 12 month follow-up.
Mean age, prostate volume, PSA and Gleason score were comparable between all three groups (p>0.05). Mean blood loss was lower with laparoscopy (189+/-140 and 290+/-254 ml), as compared to 385+/-410 ml for O-RPE (p=0.002). However, mean operating times were significantly longer in L-TRPE (279+/-70 min) as compared to E-LRPE (217+/-51 min) and O-RPE (195+/-72 min) (p<0.001), but E-LRPE and O-RPE showed no statistical difference (p=0.1143). Average VAS score on the 1st and 5th postoperative day for E-LRPE versus T-LRPE versus O-RPE was 4.9+/-1.0 versus 7.8+/-1.5 versus 5.8+/-1.9 and 1.6+/-0.9 versus 2.3+/-1.2 versus 2.3+/-0.9 respectively, which was significant lower (p=0.02) between E-LRPE versus T-LRPE (p<0.001) and O-RPE (p=0.008), but equal (p=0.655) between T-LRPE and O-RPE since postoperative day 3. Mean tramadol analgesic consumption within the first postoperative week was 290 versus 490 versus 300 mg respectively, which was statistical different between E-LRPE and T-LRPE (p<0.001), O-RPE and T-LRPE (p<0.001), but not between E-LRPE and O-RPE (p=0.550). Statistical analysis revealed a strong correlation of urinary leakage with increased postoperative pain (p=0.029) in all groups, especially for T-LRPE (p=0.007). Likewise, increased operating times (>240 min) were associated with increased post-operative pain (p=0.049). Full continence defined as no pads at one year was achieved in 36/41 (88%, E-LRPE) versus 33/39 (85%, T-LRPE) versus 33/41 (81%, O-RPE), respectively (p=0.2).
E-LRPE resulted in a significant subjective (VAS Score, p<0.001) and objective (analgetic consumption, p<0.001) pain reduction compared to T-LRPE, but only in VAS Score compared to O-RPE (p=0.008). Analgetic consumption during first postoperative week was equal in E-LRPE (290 mg) and O-RPE (300 mg) (p=0.550). Shorter operating times, lower urinary leakage rates, lower stricture rates and lower blood loss in E-LRPE compared to T-LRPE are mainly explained due to the long learning curve in LRPE, which we did not overcome yet, and not due to the approach (extraperitoneal versus transperitoneal).