Plasma lipids and lipoproteins and the prevalence of risk for coronary heart disease in Canadian adults. Canadian Heart Health Surveys Research Group.CMAJ. 1992 Jun 01; 146(11):1977-87.CMAJ
To report population reference values for blood lipids, to determine the prevalence of lipid risk factors and to assess their association with other risk factors.
Population-based cross-sectional surveys. Survey participants were interviewed at home and provided a blood sample at a clinic. All blood lipid analyses were done in the Lipid Research Laboratory, University of Toronto. The laboratory is standardized in the National Heart, Lung Blood Institute-Centres for Disease Control Standardization Program.
Nine Canadian provinces, from 1986 to 1990.
A probability sample of 26,293 men and women aged 18 to 74 was selected from the health insurance registers for each province. Blood samples were obtained from 16,924 participants who had fasted 8 hours or more.
Concentration of total plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in blood samples from fasting participants.
Of the study population, 46% had total plasma cholesterol levels above 5.2 mmol/L, 15% had LDL-cholesterol levels above 4.1 mmol/L, 15% had triglyceride levels above 2.3 mmol/L and 8% had HDL-cholesterol levels below 0.9 mmol/L. Total plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels rose with age in men to a maximum in the 45-54 age group; in women there was little change with age up to ages 45 to 54, at which time the level of each of these lipids increased appreciably. The age-standardized prevalence of obesity was positively associated with elevation of total plasma cholesterol.
The results suggest the need for a multifactorial approach in health promotion efforts to lower blood cholesterol levels and reduce other risk factors in the population. A considerable number of adults were found to be at risk at all ages in both sexes. In the short term, men aged 34 and older and women aged 45 and older might benefit most from prevention programs.