Visceral fat as a determinant of fibrinolysis and hemostasis.Semin Vasc Med 2005; 5(1):48-55SV
An increased amount of deep abdominal visceral fat has generally been accepted as an important cardiovascular risk factor, and disturbances in hemostasis and fibrinolysis have been suggested to play a role. Fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor, representatives of the hemostatic system, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), as the most important inhibitor of the fibrinolytic system, have been associated with visceral obesity, with the most convincing evidence found for the involvement of PAI-1. The association with fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor has been suggested to be merely a reflection of the association with inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. The fact that PAI-1 is secreted by adipose tissue has attracted much attention. The increase of PAI-1 in visceral obesity could be because visceral adipose tissue produces more PAI-1 compared with subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. The contribution of other cell types such as hepatocytes or endothelial cells is probably more important, with stimulation of PAI-1 production by different components of the metabolic syndrome. PAI-1 secretion by adipose tissue has been suggested to have a more local effect, playing a role in tissue remodeling during the development of obesity.