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Impacts of sewage irrigation on heavy metal distribution and contamination in Beijing, China.
Environ Int. 2005 Aug; 31(6):805-12.EI

Abstract

A potential hazard to Beijing was revealed due to the accumulation trend of heavy metals in agricultural soils with sewage irrigation, which results in metal contamination and human exposure risk. Samples including soils and plants were collected to assess the impacts of sewage irrigation on the irrigated farming area of Beijing. Concentrations of the five elements Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb were determined in samples to calculate the accumulation factor and to establish a basis for environmental protection and the suitability of sewage irrigation for particular land use in the urban-rural interaction area of Beijing. Using reference values provided by the Beijing Background Research Cooperative Group in the 1970s, the pollution load index (PLI), enrichment factor (EF), and contamination factor (CF) of these metals were calculated. The pollution load indices (sewage irrigation land 3.49) of soils indicated that metal contamination occurred in these sites. The metal enrichment (EF of Cd 1.8, Cr 1.7, Cu 2.3, Zn 2.0, Pb 1.9) and the metal contamination (CF of Cd 2.6, Cr 1.5, Cu 2.0, Zn 1.7, Pb 1.6) showed that the accumulation trend of the five toxic metals increased during the sewage irrigation as compared with the lower reference values than other region in China and world average, and that pollution with Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb was exacerbated in soils. The distributions of these metals were homogeneous in the irrigation area, but small-scale heterogeneous spatial distribution was observed. Irrigation sources were found to affect heavy metal distributions in soils. It was suggested that heavy metal transfer from soils to plants was a key pathway to human health exposure to metal contamination. However, with the expansion of urban areas in Beijing, soil inhalation and ingestion may become important pathways of human exposure to metal contamination.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Research Center for Eco-Environment Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15979146

Citation

Liu, Wen-hua, et al. "Impacts of Sewage Irrigation On Heavy Metal Distribution and Contamination in Beijing, China." Environment International, vol. 31, no. 6, 2005, pp. 805-12.
Liu WH, Zhao JZ, Ouyang ZY, et al. Impacts of sewage irrigation on heavy metal distribution and contamination in Beijing, China. Environ Int. 2005;31(6):805-12.
Liu, W. H., Zhao, J. Z., Ouyang, Z. Y., Söderlund, L., & Liu, G. H. (2005). Impacts of sewage irrigation on heavy metal distribution and contamination in Beijing, China. Environment International, 31(6), 805-12.
Liu WH, et al. Impacts of Sewage Irrigation On Heavy Metal Distribution and Contamination in Beijing, China. Environ Int. 2005;31(6):805-12. PubMed PMID: 15979146.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Impacts of sewage irrigation on heavy metal distribution and contamination in Beijing, China. AU - Liu,Wen-hua, AU - Zhao,Jing-zhu, AU - Ouyang,Zhi-yun, AU - Söderlund,Leif, AU - Liu,Guo-hua, PY - 2005/6/28/pubmed PY - 2005/12/13/medline PY - 2005/6/28/entrez SP - 805 EP - 12 JF - Environment international JO - Environ Int VL - 31 IS - 6 N2 - A potential hazard to Beijing was revealed due to the accumulation trend of heavy metals in agricultural soils with sewage irrigation, which results in metal contamination and human exposure risk. Samples including soils and plants were collected to assess the impacts of sewage irrigation on the irrigated farming area of Beijing. Concentrations of the five elements Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb were determined in samples to calculate the accumulation factor and to establish a basis for environmental protection and the suitability of sewage irrigation for particular land use in the urban-rural interaction area of Beijing. Using reference values provided by the Beijing Background Research Cooperative Group in the 1970s, the pollution load index (PLI), enrichment factor (EF), and contamination factor (CF) of these metals were calculated. The pollution load indices (sewage irrigation land 3.49) of soils indicated that metal contamination occurred in these sites. The metal enrichment (EF of Cd 1.8, Cr 1.7, Cu 2.3, Zn 2.0, Pb 1.9) and the metal contamination (CF of Cd 2.6, Cr 1.5, Cu 2.0, Zn 1.7, Pb 1.6) showed that the accumulation trend of the five toxic metals increased during the sewage irrigation as compared with the lower reference values than other region in China and world average, and that pollution with Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb was exacerbated in soils. The distributions of these metals were homogeneous in the irrigation area, but small-scale heterogeneous spatial distribution was observed. Irrigation sources were found to affect heavy metal distributions in soils. It was suggested that heavy metal transfer from soils to plants was a key pathway to human health exposure to metal contamination. However, with the expansion of urban areas in Beijing, soil inhalation and ingestion may become important pathways of human exposure to metal contamination. SN - 0160-4120 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15979146/Impacts_of_sewage_irrigation_on_heavy_metal_distribution_and_contamination_in_Beijing_China_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0160-4120(05)00113-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -