Association of active and passive smoking with allergic disorders in pregnant Japanese women: baseline data from the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2005; 94(6):644-51AA
Evidence remains inconclusive as to whether smoking is a risk factor for allergic disorders in adults.
To investigate the relationship between active and passive smoking exposure and allergic disorders in pregnant Japanese women.
This cross-sectional study included 1,002 pregnant women. Participants were classified as having asthma after the age of 18 years if they had used an asthma medication at any time after reaching the age of 18 years. Current atopic eczema and allergic rhinitis (including cedar pollinosis) were defined as being present if participants had received any drug treatment during the previous 12 months. Adjustment was made for age; gestation; parity; family history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis; indoor domestic pets; family income; education; and the mite antigen level in house dust.
Current smoking, but not environmental tobacco smoke exposure, was independently related to an increased prevalence of asthma after the age of 18 years (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-5.38). A significant positive association of current passive smoking exposure at home (adjusted OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.10-3.30) and at work (adjusted OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.29-4.76) with the prevalence of current allergic rhinitis was observed, whereas no measurable association with active smoking exposure was found. Neither active nor passive smoking was statistically significantly related to the prevalence of current atopic eczema.
These findings suggest that active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure may increase the likelihood of asthma and allergic rhinitis, respectively, in pregnant Japanese women.