Enhanced dissipation of phenanthrene and pyrene in spiked soils by combined plants cultivation.Sci Total Environ. 2006 Jun 15; 363(1-3):206-15.ST
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of POPs, are widely distributed in the environment. Phytoremediation has long been recognized as a cost-effective method for removal of PAHs pollutants from soil. This study was conducted to investigate the capability of three plant species separately and their combination to promote the degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene in soil. The performance of three plant species, maize, ryegrass and white clover for phenanthrene and pyrene removal was also compared. The result showed that the presence of vegetation significantly enhances the dissipation of phenanthrene and pyrene in the soil environment. This effect was especially marked with maize. At the end of 60 days treatment, phenanthrene and pyrene concentrations in treated soils declined from an initial 52.52 mg kg-1 and 58.19 mg kg-1 to 4.15 mg kg-1 and 6.77 mg kg-1, respectively, indicating that phenanthrene and pyrene was successfully removed by maize. Around 92.10% of phenanthrene and 88.36% of pyrene were removed from soils planted with maize. Within approximately two months experimental period, the dissipation extent showed that the 4-ring pyrene was more recalcitrant than 3-ring phenanthrene. Although the extents did not differ significantly among three tested species, the rates of degradation were different. The maize treatment had the highest rate of contaminant removal after two months, followed by white clover and annual ryegrass. As compare to single plant cultivation, combined plants cultivation significantly enhanced the destruction rate and extent of phenanthrene and pyrene in soils. Around 98.22% of phenanthrene and 95.81% of pyrene were removed from soils planted with maize and ryegrass. This research indicates the potential for phenanthrene and pyrene mineralization in combined plants cultivation, which may be especially useful for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with PAHs.