Parvovirus B19 viral loads in relation to VP1 and VP2 antibody responses in diagnostic blood samples.J Clin Virol. 2005 Sep; 34(1):71-5.JC
Human parvovirus B19 infection is characterised by high peak viral load levels followed by episodes of prolonged viremia. The risk of transmission of parvovirus B19 by blood or blood products has been increasingly recognised and parameters that can predict the risk of transmission are subject of interest.
This study aimed to study correlations between B19 viral DNA loads and antibody responses to the viral antigens VP1 and VP2 in clinical serum samples.
A panel of 1610 serum samples from patients clinically suspected from acute B19 infection were analysed. Antibodies were measured by the parvovirus anti-VP1 immuno-fluorescence assay (IFA) and the anti-VP2 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) from Biotrin. B19 viral loads were measured by a real-time PCR using the external WHO standard for DNA quantification.
Positive IgM responses were found in 154 (9.6%) of the 1610 sera tested. Based on the PCR results in a subset of 312 sera, the anti-VP2 EIA IgM showed a better combination of sensitivity/specificity (91%/94%) compared to the anti-VP1 IFA (66%/97%). B19 DNA levels in the sera strongly correlated with the levels of IgM antibodies, all sera with high viral loads (>10(6)IU/ml) having VP2 EIA IgM ratios above 3.0.
The B19 VP2 IgM ELISA is superior to the B19 VP1 IgM IFA if verified by PCR. Anti-VP2 IgM antibodies in sera are indicative for the presence B19 DNA and can be used to predict high levels of B19 DNA in diagnostic sera.