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Daily bingeing on sugar repeatedly releases dopamine in the accumbens shell.
Neuroscience. 2005; 134(3):737-44.N

Abstract

Most drugs of abuse increase dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and do so every time as a pharmacological response. Palatable food also releases accumbens-shell DA, but in naïve rats the effect can wane during a long meal and disappears with repetition. Under select dietary circumstances, sugar can have effects similar to a drug of abuse. Rats show signs of DA sensitization and opioid dependence when given intermittent access to sucrose, such as alterations in DA and mu-opioid receptors, cross-sensitization with amphetamine and alcohol, and behavioral and neurochemical signs of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. The present experiment asks whether sucrose-dependent rats release DA each time they binge. We also predict that acetylcholine (ACh), which rises as the end of a meal, will be delayed in rats with intermittent access to sucrose. To create dependency, the experimental group (Daily Intermittent Sucrose) was maintained on a diet of 12-h food deprivation that extended 4 h into the dark, followed by 12-h access to a 10% sucrose solution and chow, daily, for 21 days. As the main result, these rats gradually increased their sucrose intake from 37 to 112 ml per day (from 13 to 20 ml in the first hour of access), and repeatedly increased extracellular DA to 130% of baseline as measured in the NAc shell by microdialysis during the first hour of sucrose access on day 1, day 2 and day 21. Three control groups failed to show a significant increase in extracellular DA on day 21: Sucrose only for 1 h on days 1 and 21 (Sucrose Twice), ad libitum access to sucrose and chow (Daily Ad libitum Sucrose), and intermittent chow instead of sucrose (Daily Intermittent Chow). Acetylcholine measured at the same time as DA, increased significantly toward the end and after each test meal in all groups. In the Daily Intermittent Sucrose group, the highest ACh levels (133%) occurred during the first sample after the sucrose meal ended. In summary, sucrose-dependent animals have a delayed ACh satiation response, drink more sucrose, and release more DA than sucrose- or binge-experienced, but non-dependent animals. These results suggest another neurochemical similarity between intermittent bingeing on sucrose and drugs of abuse: both can repeatedly increase extracellular DA in the NAc shell.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Psychology Department, Green Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15987666

Citation

Rada, P, et al. "Daily Bingeing On Sugar Repeatedly Releases Dopamine in the Accumbens Shell." Neuroscience, vol. 134, no. 3, 2005, pp. 737-44.
Rada P, Avena NM, Hoebel BG. Daily bingeing on sugar repeatedly releases dopamine in the accumbens shell. Neuroscience. 2005;134(3):737-44.
Rada, P., Avena, N. M., & Hoebel, B. G. (2005). Daily bingeing on sugar repeatedly releases dopamine in the accumbens shell. Neuroscience, 134(3), 737-44.
Rada P, Avena NM, Hoebel BG. Daily Bingeing On Sugar Repeatedly Releases Dopamine in the Accumbens Shell. Neuroscience. 2005;134(3):737-44. PubMed PMID: 15987666.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Daily bingeing on sugar repeatedly releases dopamine in the accumbens shell. AU - Rada,P, AU - Avena,N M, AU - Hoebel,B G, PY - 2004/01/04/received PY - 2005/04/13/revised PY - 2005/04/16/accepted PY - 2005/7/1/pubmed PY - 2005/11/15/medline PY - 2005/7/1/entrez SP - 737 EP - 44 JF - Neuroscience JO - Neuroscience VL - 134 IS - 3 N2 - Most drugs of abuse increase dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and do so every time as a pharmacological response. Palatable food also releases accumbens-shell DA, but in naïve rats the effect can wane during a long meal and disappears with repetition. Under select dietary circumstances, sugar can have effects similar to a drug of abuse. Rats show signs of DA sensitization and opioid dependence when given intermittent access to sucrose, such as alterations in DA and mu-opioid receptors, cross-sensitization with amphetamine and alcohol, and behavioral and neurochemical signs of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. The present experiment asks whether sucrose-dependent rats release DA each time they binge. We also predict that acetylcholine (ACh), which rises as the end of a meal, will be delayed in rats with intermittent access to sucrose. To create dependency, the experimental group (Daily Intermittent Sucrose) was maintained on a diet of 12-h food deprivation that extended 4 h into the dark, followed by 12-h access to a 10% sucrose solution and chow, daily, for 21 days. As the main result, these rats gradually increased their sucrose intake from 37 to 112 ml per day (from 13 to 20 ml in the first hour of access), and repeatedly increased extracellular DA to 130% of baseline as measured in the NAc shell by microdialysis during the first hour of sucrose access on day 1, day 2 and day 21. Three control groups failed to show a significant increase in extracellular DA on day 21: Sucrose only for 1 h on days 1 and 21 (Sucrose Twice), ad libitum access to sucrose and chow (Daily Ad libitum Sucrose), and intermittent chow instead of sucrose (Daily Intermittent Chow). Acetylcholine measured at the same time as DA, increased significantly toward the end and after each test meal in all groups. In the Daily Intermittent Sucrose group, the highest ACh levels (133%) occurred during the first sample after the sucrose meal ended. In summary, sucrose-dependent animals have a delayed ACh satiation response, drink more sucrose, and release more DA than sucrose- or binge-experienced, but non-dependent animals. These results suggest another neurochemical similarity between intermittent bingeing on sucrose and drugs of abuse: both can repeatedly increase extracellular DA in the NAc shell. SN - 0306-4522 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15987666/Daily_bingeing_on_sugar_repeatedly_releases_dopamine_in_the_accumbens_shell_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0306-4522(05)00428-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -