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Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory.
Exp Brain Res 2005; 166(1):23-30EB

Abstract

Previous studies have claimed that weak transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) induces persisting excitability changes in the human motor cortex that can be more pronounced than cortical modulation induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation, but there are no studies that have evaluated the effects of tDCS on working memory. Our aim was to determine whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation, which enhances brain cortical excitability and activity, would modify performance in a sequential-letter working memory task when administered to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Fifteen subjects underwent a three-back working memory task based on letters. This task was performed during sham and anodal stimulation applied over the left DLPFC. Moreover seven of these subjects performed the same task, but with inverse polarity (cathodal stimulation of the left DLPFC) and anodal stimulation of the primary motor cortex (M1). Our results indicate that only anodal stimulation of the left prefrontal cortex, but not cathodal stimulation of left DLPFC or anodal stimulation of M1, increases the accuracy of the task performance when compared to sham stimulation of the same area. This accuracy enhancement during active stimulation cannot be accounted for by slowed responses, as response times were not changed by stimulation. Our results indicate that left prefrontal anodal stimulation leads to an enhancement of working memory performance. Furthermore, this effect depends on the stimulation polarity and is specific to the site of stimulation. This result may be helpful to develop future interventions aiming at clinical benefits.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Harvard Center for Non-invasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330, Brookline Avenue, KS 452., Boston, MA 02215, USA. ffregni@bidmc.harvard.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15999258

Citation

Fregni, Felipe, et al. "Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Prefrontal Cortex Enhances Working Memory." Experimental Brain Research, vol. 166, no. 1, 2005, pp. 23-30.
Fregni F, Boggio PS, Nitsche M, et al. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory. Exp Brain Res. 2005;166(1):23-30.
Fregni, F., Boggio, P. S., Nitsche, M., Bermpohl, F., Antal, A., Feredoes, E., ... Pascual-Leone, A. (2005). Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory. Experimental Brain Research, 166(1), pp. 23-30.
Fregni F, et al. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Prefrontal Cortex Enhances Working Memory. Exp Brain Res. 2005;166(1):23-30. PubMed PMID: 15999258.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory. AU - Fregni,Felipe, AU - Boggio,Paulo S, AU - Nitsche,Michael, AU - Bermpohl,Felix, AU - Antal,Andrea, AU - Feredoes,Eva, AU - Marcolin,Marco A, AU - Rigonatti,Sergio P, AU - Silva,Maria T A, AU - Paulus,Walter, AU - Pascual-Leone,Alvaro, Y1 - 2005/07/06/ PY - 2004/11/26/received PY - 2005/02/22/accepted PY - 2005/7/7/pubmed PY - 2006/2/25/medline PY - 2005/7/7/entrez SP - 23 EP - 30 JF - Experimental brain research JO - Exp Brain Res VL - 166 IS - 1 N2 - Previous studies have claimed that weak transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) induces persisting excitability changes in the human motor cortex that can be more pronounced than cortical modulation induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation, but there are no studies that have evaluated the effects of tDCS on working memory. Our aim was to determine whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation, which enhances brain cortical excitability and activity, would modify performance in a sequential-letter working memory task when administered to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Fifteen subjects underwent a three-back working memory task based on letters. This task was performed during sham and anodal stimulation applied over the left DLPFC. Moreover seven of these subjects performed the same task, but with inverse polarity (cathodal stimulation of the left DLPFC) and anodal stimulation of the primary motor cortex (M1). Our results indicate that only anodal stimulation of the left prefrontal cortex, but not cathodal stimulation of left DLPFC or anodal stimulation of M1, increases the accuracy of the task performance when compared to sham stimulation of the same area. This accuracy enhancement during active stimulation cannot be accounted for by slowed responses, as response times were not changed by stimulation. Our results indicate that left prefrontal anodal stimulation leads to an enhancement of working memory performance. Furthermore, this effect depends on the stimulation polarity and is specific to the site of stimulation. This result may be helpful to develop future interventions aiming at clinical benefits. SN - 0014-4819 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15999258/Anodal_transcranial_direct_current_stimulation_of_prefrontal_cortex_enhances_working_memory_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-005-2334-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -