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Effects of dietary administration of CL-20 on Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2005 Aug; 49(2):215-22.AE

Abstract

Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane, or CL-20, is an emerging highly energetic compound currently under consideration for military applications. With the anticipated wide use of CL-20, there is the potential for soil and groundwater contamination resulting in adverse toxicologic effects on environmental receptors. Presently, there is a lack of data describing the toxic effects of CL-20 on avian species. The present study describes the effect of CL-20 on Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) modified from standard toxicity test guidelines. First, a 14-day subacute assay was adopted using repeated gavage doses (0, 307, 964, 2439, 3475, or 5304 mg CL-20/kg body weight (BW)/d for 5 days followed by no CL-20 exposure (vehicle only) for 10 days. Second, a subchronic feeding assay (0, 11, 114, or 1085 mg CL-20/kg feed) was done for 42 days. During both studies, no overt toxicity was observed in the CL-20-treated birds. During the first 5 days of the subacute study, CL-20-exposed birds showed a dose-dependent decrease in BW gain, whereas increased liver weight, plasma sodium, and creatinine levels were observed in birds receiving the highest dose tested. For the subchronic study, embryo weights were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Embryos from CL-20-exposed birds were observed to have multiple cranial and facial deformities, beak curvatures, possible mid-brain enlargement, and classic one-sided development with micro-opthalamia (nonstatistical comparisons with control embryos). A trend toward decreased number of eggs laid per female bird was also observed. We conclude that CL-20 (or its degradation products) elicits few effects in adults but may affect avian development, although these preliminary findings should be confirmed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H4P 2R2.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16001151

Citation

Bardai, G, et al. "Effects of Dietary Administration of CL-20 On Japanese Quail Coturnix Coturnix Japonica." Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 49, no. 2, 2005, pp. 215-22.
Bardai G, Sunahara GI, Spear PA, et al. Effects of dietary administration of CL-20 on Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2005;49(2):215-22.
Bardai, G., Sunahara, G. I., Spear, P. A., Martel, M., Gong, P., & Hawari, J. (2005). Effects of dietary administration of CL-20 on Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 49(2), 215-22.
Bardai G, et al. Effects of Dietary Administration of CL-20 On Japanese Quail Coturnix Coturnix Japonica. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2005;49(2):215-22. PubMed PMID: 16001151.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of dietary administration of CL-20 on Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica. AU - Bardai,G, AU - Sunahara,G I, AU - Spear,P A, AU - Martel,M, AU - Gong,P, AU - Hawari,J, Y1 - 2005/07/06/ PY - 2004/11/12/received PY - 2005/02/05/accepted PY - 2005/7/8/pubmed PY - 2005/10/21/medline PY - 2005/7/8/entrez SP - 215 EP - 22 JF - Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology JO - Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. VL - 49 IS - 2 N2 - Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane, or CL-20, is an emerging highly energetic compound currently under consideration for military applications. With the anticipated wide use of CL-20, there is the potential for soil and groundwater contamination resulting in adverse toxicologic effects on environmental receptors. Presently, there is a lack of data describing the toxic effects of CL-20 on avian species. The present study describes the effect of CL-20 on Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) modified from standard toxicity test guidelines. First, a 14-day subacute assay was adopted using repeated gavage doses (0, 307, 964, 2439, 3475, or 5304 mg CL-20/kg body weight (BW)/d for 5 days followed by no CL-20 exposure (vehicle only) for 10 days. Second, a subchronic feeding assay (0, 11, 114, or 1085 mg CL-20/kg feed) was done for 42 days. During both studies, no overt toxicity was observed in the CL-20-treated birds. During the first 5 days of the subacute study, CL-20-exposed birds showed a dose-dependent decrease in BW gain, whereas increased liver weight, plasma sodium, and creatinine levels were observed in birds receiving the highest dose tested. For the subchronic study, embryo weights were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Embryos from CL-20-exposed birds were observed to have multiple cranial and facial deformities, beak curvatures, possible mid-brain enlargement, and classic one-sided development with micro-opthalamia (nonstatistical comparisons with control embryos). A trend toward decreased number of eggs laid per female bird was also observed. We conclude that CL-20 (or its degradation products) elicits few effects in adults but may affect avian development, although these preliminary findings should be confirmed. SN - 0090-4341 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16001151/Effects_of_dietary_administration_of_CL_20_on_Japanese_quail_Coturnix_coturnix_japonica_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-004-0231-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -