Increased plasma soluble adhesion molecules; ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin levels in patients with slow coronary flow.Int J Cardiol. 2006 Apr 04; 108(2):224-30.IJ
Inflammation has been reported to be a major contributing factor to many cardiovascular events. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate plasma soluble adhesion molecules; intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin as possible indicators of endothelial activation or inflammation in patients with slow coronary flow.
Study population included 17 patients with angiographically proven normal coronary arteries and slow coronary flow in all three coronary vessels (group I, 11 male, 6 female, mean age=48+/-9 years), and 20 subjects with angiographically proven normal coronary arteries without associated slow coronary flow (group II, 11 male, 9 female, mean age=50+/-8 years). Coronary flow rates of all patients and control subjects were documented by Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction frame count (TIMI frame count). All patients in group I had TIMI frame counts greater than two standard deviation above those of control subjects (group II) and, therefore, were accepted as exhibiting slow coronary flow. Serum levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin were measured in all patients and control subjects using commercially available ELISA kits.
Serum ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin levels of patients with slow coronary flow were found to be significantly higher than those of control subjects with normal coronary flow (ICAM-1: 545+/-198 ng/ml vs. 242+/-113 ng/ml respectively, p<0.001, VCAM-1: 2040+/-634 ng/ml vs. 918+/-336 ng/ml respectively, p<0.001, E-selectin: 67+/-9 ng/ml vs. 52+/-8 ng/ml respectively, p<0.001). Average TIMI frame count was detected to be significantly correlated with plasma soluble ICAM-1 (r=0.550, p<0.001), VCAM-1 (r=0.569, p<0.001) and E-selectin (r=0.443, p=0.006).
Increased levels of soluble adhesion molecules in patients with slow coronary flow may be an indicator of endothelial activation and inflammation and are likely to be in the causal pathway leading to slow coronary flow.