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Antidiabetic activity and toxicity of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct 03; 101(1-3):129-38.JE

Abstract

The effect of the butanol extract of Zizyphus spina-christi (L.), Willd (Rhamnaceae) leaves and its major saponin glycoside, christinin-A, on the serum glucose and insulin levels was studied in non-diabetic control, type-I (insulin-dependent) and type-II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic rats. Pretreatment either with 100 mg/kg butanol extract or christinin-A potentiated glucose-induced insulin release in non-diabetic control rats. In type-II but not in type-I diabetic rats pretreatment with the butanol extract or christinin-A improved the oral glucose tolerance and potentiated glucose-induced insulin release. Treatment either with 100 mg/kg butanol extract or christinin-A reduced the serum glucose level and increased the serum insulin level of non-diabetic control and type-II diabetic rats but not of type-I diabetic rats. Effects of the butanol extract and christinin-A were similar. Pretreatment of non-diabetic control and type-II diabetic rats either with 100 mg/kg butanol extract or christinin-A enhanced the glucose lowering and insulinotropic effects of 5 g/kg glibenclamide. The hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic effects of 30 mg/kg diazoxide in non-diabetic control and type-II diabetic rats were inhibited and antagonized, respectively by pretreatment with the butanol extract or christinin-A. The relaxant effects of different concentrations of diazoxide on the isolated norepinephrine-contracted aortic strips were inhibited by 100 micromol/l christinin-A or 10 micromol/l glibenclamide. The combination of glibenclamide and christinin-A led to complete inhibition of the relaxant effects of different concentrations of diazoxide. At a dose level much higher than that required to produce satisfactory insulinotropic and hypoglycemic effects, the butanol extract of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves produced a depressant effect on the central nervous system in rats. Treatment of rats with 100mg/kg butanol extract for 3 months produced no functional or structural disturbances in liver and kidney and no haematological changes. In addition, the oral LD50 of the butanol extract in mice was 3820 mg/kg, while that of glibenclamide was 3160 mg/kg. Thus, Zizyphusspina-christi leaves appears to be a safe alternative to lower blood glucose. The safe insulinotropic and subsequent hypoglycemic effects of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves may be due to a sulfonylurea-like activity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt. ahmedosmanaz@hotmail.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16009520

Citation

Abdel-Zaher, Ahmed O., et al. "Antidiabetic Activity and Toxicity of Zizyphus Spina-christi Leaves." Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 101, no. 1-3, 2005, pp. 129-38.
Abdel-Zaher AO, Salim SY, Assaf MH, et al. Antidiabetic activity and toxicity of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;101(1-3):129-38.
Abdel-Zaher, A. O., Salim, S. Y., Assaf, M. H., & Abdel-Hady, R. H. (2005). Antidiabetic activity and toxicity of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 101(1-3), 129-38.
Abdel-Zaher AO, et al. Antidiabetic Activity and Toxicity of Zizyphus Spina-christi Leaves. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct 3;101(1-3):129-38. PubMed PMID: 16009520.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Antidiabetic activity and toxicity of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves. AU - Abdel-Zaher,Ahmed O, AU - Salim,Safa Y, AU - Assaf,Mahmoud H, AU - Abdel-Hady,Randa H, PY - 2005/03/07/received PY - 2005/03/07/revised PY - 2005/04/07/accepted PY - 2005/7/13/pubmed PY - 2005/12/29/medline PY - 2005/7/13/entrez SP - 129 EP - 38 JF - Journal of ethnopharmacology JO - J Ethnopharmacol VL - 101 IS - 1-3 N2 - The effect of the butanol extract of Zizyphus spina-christi (L.), Willd (Rhamnaceae) leaves and its major saponin glycoside, christinin-A, on the serum glucose and insulin levels was studied in non-diabetic control, type-I (insulin-dependent) and type-II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic rats. Pretreatment either with 100 mg/kg butanol extract or christinin-A potentiated glucose-induced insulin release in non-diabetic control rats. In type-II but not in type-I diabetic rats pretreatment with the butanol extract or christinin-A improved the oral glucose tolerance and potentiated glucose-induced insulin release. Treatment either with 100 mg/kg butanol extract or christinin-A reduced the serum glucose level and increased the serum insulin level of non-diabetic control and type-II diabetic rats but not of type-I diabetic rats. Effects of the butanol extract and christinin-A were similar. Pretreatment of non-diabetic control and type-II diabetic rats either with 100 mg/kg butanol extract or christinin-A enhanced the glucose lowering and insulinotropic effects of 5 g/kg glibenclamide. The hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic effects of 30 mg/kg diazoxide in non-diabetic control and type-II diabetic rats were inhibited and antagonized, respectively by pretreatment with the butanol extract or christinin-A. The relaxant effects of different concentrations of diazoxide on the isolated norepinephrine-contracted aortic strips were inhibited by 100 micromol/l christinin-A or 10 micromol/l glibenclamide. The combination of glibenclamide and christinin-A led to complete inhibition of the relaxant effects of different concentrations of diazoxide. At a dose level much higher than that required to produce satisfactory insulinotropic and hypoglycemic effects, the butanol extract of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves produced a depressant effect on the central nervous system in rats. Treatment of rats with 100mg/kg butanol extract for 3 months produced no functional or structural disturbances in liver and kidney and no haematological changes. In addition, the oral LD50 of the butanol extract in mice was 3820 mg/kg, while that of glibenclamide was 3160 mg/kg. Thus, Zizyphusspina-christi leaves appears to be a safe alternative to lower blood glucose. The safe insulinotropic and subsequent hypoglycemic effects of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves may be due to a sulfonylurea-like activity. SN - 0378-8741 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16009520/Antidiabetic_activity_and_toxicity_of_Zizyphus_spina_christi_leaves_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378-8741(05)00254-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -