The clinical management of hyperphosphatemia.J Nephrol 2005 May-Jun; 18(3):221-8JN
As renal function declines in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), excess dietary phosphorus accumulates in the bloodstream. Routine dialysis removes up to 70% of absorbed phosphorus; therefore, hyperphosphatemia is found in the majority of patients with ESRD. The consequences of this imbalance include secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteodystrophy. Recent studies have also documented that hyperphosphatemia can lead to soft-tissue and vascular calcification; the latter is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease and, thus, increased mortality and morbidity. The reduction of phosphorus levels is, therefore, an important therapeutic target in this patient group. Management of hyperphosphatemia using conventional phosphate binders is not always successful. However, emerging therapies aim to reduce the incidence of hyperparathyroidism, bone disease, and calcification in this patient population. In this article, the consequences of hyperphosphatemia are reviewed, and recent developments in the treatment of the condition are discussed.