Presenilins mediate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT and ERK activation via select signaling receptors. Selectivity of PS2 in platelet-derived growth factor signaling.J Biol Chem. 2005 Sep 09; 280(36):31537-47.JB
The Alzheimer's disease-linked genes, PS1 and PS2, are required for intramembrane proteolysis of multiple type I proteins, including Notch and amyloid precursor protein. In addition, it has been documented that PS1 positively regulates, whereas PS1 familial Alzheimer disease mutations suppress, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt activation, a pathway known to inactivate glycogen synthase kinase-3 and reduce tau phosphorylation. In this study, we show that the loss of presenilins not only inhibits PI3K/Akt signaling and increases tau phosphorylation but also suppresses the MEK/ERK pathway. The deficits in Akt and ERK activation in cells deficient in both PS1 and PS2 (PS-/-) are evident after serum withdrawal and stimulation with fetal bovine serum or ligands of select receptor tyrosine kinases, platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFR beta) and PDGFR alpha, but not insulin-like growth factor-1R and epidermal growth factor receptor. The defects in PDGF signaling in PS-/- cells are due to reduced expression of PDGF receptors. Whereas fetal bovine serum-induced Akt activation is reconstituted by both PS1 and PS2 in PS-/- cells, PDGF signaling is selectively restored by PS2 but not PS1 and is dependent on the N-terminal fragment of PS2 but not gamma-secretase activity or the hydrophilic loop of PS2. The rescue of PDGF receptor expression and activation by PS2 is facilitated by FHL2, a PS2-interacting transcriptional co-activator. Finally, we present evidence that PS1 mutations interfere with this PS2-mediated activity by reducing PS2 fragments. These findings highlight important roles of both presenilins in Akt and ERK signaling via select signaling receptors.